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Towards reliable and secure physical unclonable functions

Towards reliable and secure physical unclonable functions
Towards reliable and secure physical unclonable functions
Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a promising primitive that can be used to provide a hardware root of trust for integrated circuit (IC) applications. PUFs exploit the random intrinsic manufacturing process variations that map a set of challenges to a set of responses. The mapping of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) is unique and random to each PUF instance, which makes PUFs a very promising technology for robust security devices. PUFs have been proposed for lightweight IC identification and authentication, and cryptographic key generation. However, as CMOS technology scales down, device ageing becomes more pronounced and introduces reliability issues for PUF circuits. When PUFs undergo ageing, the response changes. As a consequence, the trustworthy identity of the ICs can be violated. The area overhead of an error correction code (ECC) in a PUF-based system needed to generate error-free cryptographic keys also increases. Furthermore, a PUF is physically unclonable but its function is susceptible to modelling attacks from machine learning (ML) techniques. Therefore, providing reliable and secure PUFs for lightweight applications is a major challenge. This thesis studies the reliability of PUFs for lightweight applications under ageing. It also considers the susceptibility of PUFs to ML-based attacks. This thesis presents three major contributions. The context of the first and second contributions is within the lightweight IC
identification and authentication, and the third contribution is within the cryptographic key generation. The first contribution presents an analysis of the impact of ageing on PUF-based differential architectures. The simulation results demonstrate that a differential design technique to build a PUF can be a mechanism to mitigate the first-order dependencies of ageing such as the duty
cycle and supply voltage. The second contribution proposes a challenge permutation technique to increase the complexity of the CRP mapping. The technique has been implemented on an Arbiter-PUF using a TSMC 65-nm technology. The simulation results show that using a challenge permutation technique can alter the output transition probability of Arbiter-PUF, resulting in the reduction of its predictability from 99% to 65%. The challenge permutation technique introduces no extra overhead as it can be implemented by routing obfuscation. Finally, the third contribution proposes a bit selection technique in a dual use of SRAM as a memory and PUF to mitigate the ageing impact and reduce the area overhead of the ECC. The results show that the proposed technique can effectively reduce the bit errors due to ageing and the area overhead of the ECC is reduced by about 6 times compared to that without bit selection.
University of Southampton
Mispan, Mohd Syafiq
568c91c3-c200-441c-887b-8f299635b94e
Mispan, Mohd Syafiq
568c91c3-c200-441c-887b-8f299635b94e
Zwolinski, Mark
adfcb8e7-877f-4bd7-9b55-7553b6cb3ea0
Halak, Basel
8221f839-0dfd-4f81-9865-37def5f79f33
Su, Haibo
07117108-5e87-4450-9853-1d4c12d387ca

Mispan, Mohd Syafiq (2018) Towards reliable and secure physical unclonable functions. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis, 177pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a promising primitive that can be used to provide a hardware root of trust for integrated circuit (IC) applications. PUFs exploit the random intrinsic manufacturing process variations that map a set of challenges to a set of responses. The mapping of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) is unique and random to each PUF instance, which makes PUFs a very promising technology for robust security devices. PUFs have been proposed for lightweight IC identification and authentication, and cryptographic key generation. However, as CMOS technology scales down, device ageing becomes more pronounced and introduces reliability issues for PUF circuits. When PUFs undergo ageing, the response changes. As a consequence, the trustworthy identity of the ICs can be violated. The area overhead of an error correction code (ECC) in a PUF-based system needed to generate error-free cryptographic keys also increases. Furthermore, a PUF is physically unclonable but its function is susceptible to modelling attacks from machine learning (ML) techniques. Therefore, providing reliable and secure PUFs for lightweight applications is a major challenge. This thesis studies the reliability of PUFs for lightweight applications under ageing. It also considers the susceptibility of PUFs to ML-based attacks. This thesis presents three major contributions. The context of the first and second contributions is within the lightweight IC
identification and authentication, and the third contribution is within the cryptographic key generation. The first contribution presents an analysis of the impact of ageing on PUF-based differential architectures. The simulation results demonstrate that a differential design technique to build a PUF can be a mechanism to mitigate the first-order dependencies of ageing such as the duty
cycle and supply voltage. The second contribution proposes a challenge permutation technique to increase the complexity of the CRP mapping. The technique has been implemented on an Arbiter-PUF using a TSMC 65-nm technology. The simulation results show that using a challenge permutation technique can alter the output transition probability of Arbiter-PUF, resulting in the reduction of its predictability from 99% to 65%. The challenge permutation technique introduces no extra overhead as it can be implemented by routing obfuscation. Finally, the third contribution proposes a bit selection technique in a dual use of SRAM as a memory and PUF to mitigate the ageing impact and reduce the area overhead of the ECC. The results show that the proposed technique can effectively reduce the bit errors due to ageing and the area overhead of the ECC is reduced by about 6 times compared to that without bit selection.

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Published date: July 2018

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 424534
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/424534
PURE UUID: 0ba3fdbd-0f34-40eb-abae-c750a458ee8b
ORCID for Mark Zwolinski: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2230-625X
ORCID for Basel Halak: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3470-7226
ORCID for Haibo Su: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2619-9276

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Date deposited: 05 Oct 2018 11:38
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 17:31

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