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Reading sentences of words with rotated letters: an eye movement study

Reading sentences of words with rotated letters: an eye movement study
Reading sentences of words with rotated letters: an eye movement study
Participants’ eye movements were measured as they read sentences in which individual letters within words were rotated. Both the consistency of direction and the magnitude of rotation were manipulated (letters rotated all in the same direction, or alternately clockwise and anti-clockwise, by 30° or 60°). Each sentence included a target word that was manipulated for frequency of occurrence. Our objectives were threefold: To quantify how change in the visual presentation of individual letters disrupted word identification, and whether disruption was consistent with systematic change in visual presentation; to determine whether inconsistent letter transformation caused more disruption than consistent letter transformation; and to determine whether such effects were comparable for words that were high and low frequency to explore the extent to which they were visually or linguistically mediated. We found that disruption to reading was greater as the magnitude of letter rotation increased, although even small rotations affected processing. The data also showed that alternating letter rotations were significantly more disruptive than consistent rotations; this result is consistent with models of lexical identification in which encoding occurs over units of more than one adjacent letter. These rotation manipulations also showed significant interactions with word frequency on the target word: Gaze durations and total fixation duration times increased disproportionately for low-frequency words when they were presented at more extreme rotations. These data provide a first step towards quantifying the relative contribution of the spatial relationships between individual letters to word recognition and eye movement control in reading.
1747-0218
1790-1804
Blythe, Hazel I.
51835633-e40b-4e8b-ae49-ad6b2f927f4c
Juhasz, Barbara.J.
744803c0-09fb-498f-817f-ee926eaaaed7
Tbaily, Lee
493ceff8-1798-439a-8430-735256e06d0e
Rayner, Keith
15f4ff90-d631-457b-a055-3944b702ea27
Liversedge, Simon P.
2cc0c5f3-0b3e-464f-b9c1-7736c5f94cf0
Blythe, Hazel I.
51835633-e40b-4e8b-ae49-ad6b2f927f4c
Juhasz, Barbara.J.
744803c0-09fb-498f-817f-ee926eaaaed7
Tbaily, Lee
493ceff8-1798-439a-8430-735256e06d0e
Rayner, Keith
15f4ff90-d631-457b-a055-3944b702ea27
Liversedge, Simon P.
2cc0c5f3-0b3e-464f-b9c1-7736c5f94cf0

Blythe, Hazel I., Juhasz, Barbara.J., Tbaily, Lee, Rayner, Keith and Liversedge, Simon P. (2019) Reading sentences of words with rotated letters: an eye movement study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72 (7), 1790-1804. (doi:10.1177/1747021818810381).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Participants’ eye movements were measured as they read sentences in which individual letters within words were rotated. Both the consistency of direction and the magnitude of rotation were manipulated (letters rotated all in the same direction, or alternately clockwise and anti-clockwise, by 30° or 60°). Each sentence included a target word that was manipulated for frequency of occurrence. Our objectives were threefold: To quantify how change in the visual presentation of individual letters disrupted word identification, and whether disruption was consistent with systematic change in visual presentation; to determine whether inconsistent letter transformation caused more disruption than consistent letter transformation; and to determine whether such effects were comparable for words that were high and low frequency to explore the extent to which they were visually or linguistically mediated. We found that disruption to reading was greater as the magnitude of letter rotation increased, although even small rotations affected processing. The data also showed that alternating letter rotations were significantly more disruptive than consistent rotations; this result is consistent with models of lexical identification in which encoding occurs over units of more than one adjacent letter. These rotation manipulations also showed significant interactions with word frequency on the target word: Gaze durations and total fixation duration times increased disproportionately for low-frequency words when they were presented at more extreme rotations. These data provide a first step towards quantifying the relative contribution of the spatial relationships between individual letters to word recognition and eye movement control in reading.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 9 October 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 12 November 2018
Published date: 1 July 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 425312
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/425312
ISSN: 1747-0218
PURE UUID: caa5bb18-c260-4019-9d78-5158a4cf601b

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Date deposited: 12 Oct 2018 16:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 05:31

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Contributors

Author: Hazel I. Blythe
Author: Barbara.J. Juhasz
Author: Lee Tbaily
Author: Keith Rayner
Author: Simon P. Liversedge

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