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Global trade-offs of functional redundancy and functional dispersion for birds and mammals

Global trade-offs of functional redundancy and functional dispersion for birds and mammals
Global trade-offs of functional redundancy and functional dispersion for birds and mammals
Aim

The diversity of birds and mammals is typically described in separate analyses, but species may play similar roles. Here, we develop a comparative trait framework for birds and mammals to provide a global quantification of the similarity of species roles (functional redundancy) and the breadth of roles across taxa (functional dispersion). We predict different contributions of birds and mammals to redundancy and dispersion, and unique geographical patterns of redundancy and dispersion by including both taxa.

Location

Global.

Time period

Contemporary.

Major taxa studied

Birds and mammals.

Methods

We systematically select, compile and impute the same six traits (i.e., a common currency of traits) across 15,485 bird and mammal species from multiple databases. We use these six traits to compute functional redundancy and functional dispersion for birds and mammals across all 825 terrestrial ecoregions. We then calculate the standardized effect size (SES) of these observed values compared with null expectations, based on a randomization of species composition (i.e., independent of differences in species richness).

Results

We find that species‐rich regions, such as the Neotropics, have high functional redundancy coupled with low functional dispersion, characterizing a global trade‐off. Thus, in general, as species richness increases, the similarity in species functional roles also increases. We therefore suggest that different processes generate species richness/functional redundancy and functional dispersion, leading to a novel, and generally non‐tropical, distribution of hotspots of high functional dispersion across Madagascar, Eastern Asia and Western USA.

Main conclusions

We recommend consideration of both the similarity and the breadth of functional roles across species pools, including taxa that may play similar roles. We therefore suggest that functional redundancy, as a means of insurance, and functional dispersion, as an indicator of response diversity, should be evaluated further as conservation objectives.
1466-822X
Cooke, Robert, Scott Charles
25919276-1693-4663-a306-a90e2db2a91f
Bates, Amanda E.
a96e267d-6d22-4232-b7ed-ce4e448a2a34
Eigenbrod, Felix
43efc6ae-b129-45a2-8a34-e489b5f05827
Cooke, Robert, Scott Charles
25919276-1693-4663-a306-a90e2db2a91f
Bates, Amanda E.
a96e267d-6d22-4232-b7ed-ce4e448a2a34
Eigenbrod, Felix
43efc6ae-b129-45a2-8a34-e489b5f05827

Cooke, Robert, Scott Charles, Bates, Amanda E. and Eigenbrod, Felix (2019) Global trade-offs of functional redundancy and functional dispersion for birds and mammals. Global Ecology and Biogeography. (doi:10.1111/geb.12869).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Aim

The diversity of birds and mammals is typically described in separate analyses, but species may play similar roles. Here, we develop a comparative trait framework for birds and mammals to provide a global quantification of the similarity of species roles (functional redundancy) and the breadth of roles across taxa (functional dispersion). We predict different contributions of birds and mammals to redundancy and dispersion, and unique geographical patterns of redundancy and dispersion by including both taxa.

Location

Global.

Time period

Contemporary.

Major taxa studied

Birds and mammals.

Methods

We systematically select, compile and impute the same six traits (i.e., a common currency of traits) across 15,485 bird and mammal species from multiple databases. We use these six traits to compute functional redundancy and functional dispersion for birds and mammals across all 825 terrestrial ecoregions. We then calculate the standardized effect size (SES) of these observed values compared with null expectations, based on a randomization of species composition (i.e., independent of differences in species richness).

Results

We find that species‐rich regions, such as the Neotropics, have high functional redundancy coupled with low functional dispersion, characterizing a global trade‐off. Thus, in general, as species richness increases, the similarity in species functional roles also increases. We therefore suggest that different processes generate species richness/functional redundancy and functional dispersion, leading to a novel, and generally non‐tropical, distribution of hotspots of high functional dispersion across Madagascar, Eastern Asia and Western USA.

Main conclusions

We recommend consideration of both the similarity and the breadth of functional roles across species pools, including taxa that may play similar roles. We therefore suggest that functional redundancy, as a means of insurance, and functional dispersion, as an indicator of response diversity, should be evaluated further as conservation objectives.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 29 October 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 21 January 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 425754
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/425754
ISSN: 1466-822X
PURE UUID: 01dc5b47-776a-4233-a591-bd47b7018218
ORCID for Felix Eigenbrod: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8982-824X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 02 Nov 2018 17:30
Last modified: 15 Aug 2019 00:39

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Contributors

Author: Amanda E. Bates
Author: Felix Eigenbrod ORCID iD

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