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Physical vein models to quantify the flow performance of sclerosing foams

Physical vein models to quantify the flow performance of sclerosing foams
Physical vein models to quantify the flow performance of sclerosing foams
Foam sclerotherapy is clinically employed to treat varicose veins. It involves intravenous injection of foamed surfactant agents causing endothelial wall damage and vessel shrinkage, leading to subsequent neovascularization. Foam production methods used clinically include manual techniques, such as the Double Syringe System (DSS) and Tessari (TSS) methods. Pre-clinical in-vitro studies are conducted to characterize the performance of sclerosing agents; however, the experimental models used often do not replicate physiologically relevant physical and biological conditions. In this study, physical vein models (PVMs) were developed and employed for the first time to characterize the flow behavior of sclerosing foams. PVMs were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by replica moulding, and were designed to mimic qualitative geometrical characteristics of veins. Foam behavior was investigated as a function of different physical variables, namely (i) geometry of the vein model (i.e., physiological vs. varicose vein), (ii) foam production technique, and (iii) flow rate of a blood surrogate. The experimental set-up consisted of a PVM positioned on an inclined platform, a syringe pump to control the flow rate of a blood substitute, and a pressure transducer. The static pressure of the blood surrogate at the PVM inlet was measured upon foam administration. The recorded pressure-time curves were analyzed to quantify metrics of foam behavior, with a particular focus on foam expansion and degradation dynamics. Results showed that DSS and TSS foams had similar expansion rate in the physiological PVM, whilst DSS foam had lower expansion rate in the varicose PVM compared to TSS foam. The degradation rate of DSS foam was lower than TSS foam, in both model architectures. Moreover, the background flow rate had a significant effect on foam behaviour, enhancing foam displacement rate in both types of PVM.
Bottaro, Elisabetta
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Paterson, Jemma Alanna Jane
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Zhang, Xunli
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Hill, Martyn
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Patel, Venisha A
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Jones, Stephen A
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Lewis, Andrew L
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Millar, Timothy
ec88510c-ad88-49f6-8b2d-4277c84c1958
Carugo, Dario
0a4be6cd-e309-4ed8-a620-20256ce01179
Bottaro, Elisabetta
6e8d35c1-e87a-4d20-a6a5-99fd44281c57
Paterson, Jemma Alanna Jane
61d7c33a-b6f0-4d6b-9f3d-1cebc80983e1
Zhang, Xunli
d7cf1181-3276-4da1-9150-e212b333abb1
Hill, Martyn
0cda65c8-a70f-476f-b126-d2c4460a253e
Patel, Venisha A
c9dcb951-d5f9-46f4-a109-15e5f0dfef40
Jones, Stephen A
4c047c30-afa1-4914-92f3-7a3d8d8d765d
Lewis, Andrew L
f604ae82-4d54-4f04-ac8f-e7bc6f1f832c
Millar, Timothy
ec88510c-ad88-49f6-8b2d-4277c84c1958
Carugo, Dario
0a4be6cd-e309-4ed8-a620-20256ce01179

Bottaro, Elisabetta, Paterson, Jemma Alanna Jane, Zhang, Xunli, Hill, Martyn, Patel, Venisha A, Jones, Stephen A, Lewis, Andrew L, Millar, Timothy and Carugo, Dario (2019) Physical vein models to quantify the flow performance of sclerosing foams. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 7, [109]. (doi:10.3389/fbioe.2019.00109).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Foam sclerotherapy is clinically employed to treat varicose veins. It involves intravenous injection of foamed surfactant agents causing endothelial wall damage and vessel shrinkage, leading to subsequent neovascularization. Foam production methods used clinically include manual techniques, such as the Double Syringe System (DSS) and Tessari (TSS) methods. Pre-clinical in-vitro studies are conducted to characterize the performance of sclerosing agents; however, the experimental models used often do not replicate physiologically relevant physical and biological conditions. In this study, physical vein models (PVMs) were developed and employed for the first time to characterize the flow behavior of sclerosing foams. PVMs were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by replica moulding, and were designed to mimic qualitative geometrical characteristics of veins. Foam behavior was investigated as a function of different physical variables, namely (i) geometry of the vein model (i.e., physiological vs. varicose vein), (ii) foam production technique, and (iii) flow rate of a blood surrogate. The experimental set-up consisted of a PVM positioned on an inclined platform, a syringe pump to control the flow rate of a blood substitute, and a pressure transducer. The static pressure of the blood surrogate at the PVM inlet was measured upon foam administration. The recorded pressure-time curves were analyzed to quantify metrics of foam behavior, with a particular focus on foam expansion and degradation dynamics. Results showed that DSS and TSS foams had similar expansion rate in the physiological PVM, whilst DSS foam had lower expansion rate in the varicose PVM compared to TSS foam. The degradation rate of DSS foam was lower than TSS foam, in both model architectures. Moreover, the background flow rate had a significant effect on foam behaviour, enhancing foam displacement rate in both types of PVM.

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434271_Carugo_Carugo_2019-04-30-FRONTIER-final - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 1 May 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 21 May 2019
Published date: 21 May 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 430677
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/430677
PURE UUID: aa819b73-da4a-47f0-887c-25b0cada8fba
ORCID for Xunli Zhang: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4375-1571
ORCID for Martyn Hill: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6448-9448
ORCID for Timothy Millar: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4539-2445

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 08 May 2019 16:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:52

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Contributors

Author: Elisabetta Bottaro
Author: Jemma Alanna Jane Paterson
Author: Xunli Zhang ORCID iD
Author: Martyn Hill ORCID iD
Author: Venisha A Patel
Author: Stephen A Jones
Author: Andrew L Lewis
Author: Timothy Millar ORCID iD
Author: Dario Carugo

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