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Vitamin D deficiency and glycaemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jazan City, Saudi Arabia

Vitamin D deficiency and glycaemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jazan City, Saudi Arabia
Vitamin D deficiency and glycaemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jazan City, Saudi Arabia
Background: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is predicted to be high in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the exact figure is not known in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Emerging data suggests that VDD plays a role in glycaemic control. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of VDD among T2DM patients and to investigate its association with patients’ characteristics and glycaemic control in Jazan. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which recruited 309 patients with T2DM randomly from the Jazan diabetes registry. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the VDD predictors and to examine the association of VDD in predicting glycaemic control adjusting for other covariates. Results: The VDD prevalence was found to be 60.8% in patients with T2DM. Age, gender, diabetic retinopathy (DR), dyslipidaemia, glycaemic control and obesity were significantly associated with VDD, and all except obesity were independent predictors of VDD. There was a significant negative correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). VDD was a significant independent predictor of poor glycaemic control after adjustment for hypertension, DR, diabetic neuropathy (DN), type of diabetes medication, diabetes duration, and education level. Conclusion: In this Saudi Arabian population, VDD is highly prevalent in people with T2DM and is associated with poor glycaemic control. Health education targeting patients with T2DM and national strategies regarding vitamin D fortification are needed to prevent VDD in Saudi Arabia. Earlier VDD diagnosis by healthcare providers may help to improve the outcome for patients with T2DM. Establishing the causal association between VDD and glycaemic control and clarifying the biological role of vitamin D in T2DM are important aims for future studies.
vitamin d deficiency, diabetes, Saudi Arabia
853-862
Darraj, Hussain
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Badedi, Mohammed
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Poore, Kirsten
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Hummadi, Abdulrahman
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Khawaji, Abdullah
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Solan, Yahia
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Zakry, Ibrahim
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Sabai, Abdullah
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Darraj, Majid
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Mutawwam, Dhayf Alrahman
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Daghreeri, Mohammed
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Sayed, safaa
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Alaallah, Wael
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Alfadhly, Abdulaziz
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Alsabaani, Abdullah
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Darraj, Hussain
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Badedi, Mohammed
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Poore, Kirsten
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Hummadi, Abdulrahman
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Khawaji, Abdullah
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Solan, Yahia
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Zakry, Ibrahim
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Sabai, Abdullah
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Darraj, Majid
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Mutawwam, Dhayf Alrahman
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Daghreeri, Mohammed
fed0b291-31e9-4e10-a73d-033eeb8dbf4a
Sayed, safaa
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Alaallah, Wael
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Alfadhly, Abdulaziz
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Alsabaani, Abdullah
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Darraj, Hussain, Badedi, Mohammed, Poore, Kirsten, Hummadi, Abdulrahman, Khawaji, Abdullah, Solan, Yahia, Zakry, Ibrahim, Sabai, Abdullah, Darraj, Majid, Mutawwam, Dhayf Alrahman, Daghreeri, Mohammed, Sayed, safaa, Alaallah, Wael, Alfadhly, Abdulaziz and Alsabaani, Abdullah (2019) Vitamin D deficiency and glycaemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jazan City, Saudi Arabia. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 12, 853-862. (doi:10.2147/DMSO.S203700).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is predicted to be high in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the exact figure is not known in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Emerging data suggests that VDD plays a role in glycaemic control. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of VDD among T2DM patients and to investigate its association with patients’ characteristics and glycaemic control in Jazan. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which recruited 309 patients with T2DM randomly from the Jazan diabetes registry. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the VDD predictors and to examine the association of VDD in predicting glycaemic control adjusting for other covariates. Results: The VDD prevalence was found to be 60.8% in patients with T2DM. Age, gender, diabetic retinopathy (DR), dyslipidaemia, glycaemic control and obesity were significantly associated with VDD, and all except obesity were independent predictors of VDD. There was a significant negative correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). VDD was a significant independent predictor of poor glycaemic control after adjustment for hypertension, DR, diabetic neuropathy (DN), type of diabetes medication, diabetes duration, and education level. Conclusion: In this Saudi Arabian population, VDD is highly prevalent in people with T2DM and is associated with poor glycaemic control. Health education targeting patients with T2DM and national strategies regarding vitamin D fortification are needed to prevent VDD in Saudi Arabia. Earlier VDD diagnosis by healthcare providers may help to improve the outcome for patients with T2DM. Establishing the causal association between VDD and glycaemic control and clarifying the biological role of vitamin D in T2DM are important aims for future studies.

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Darraj accepted revised_manuscript Diab Met Syn Obesity 2019 - Accepted Manuscript
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Darraj et al. 2019 Diab Met Syn Obesity Vit D deficiency - Version of Record
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 27 March 2019
Published date: 5 June 2019
Keywords: vitamin d deficiency, diabetes, Saudi Arabia

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 430798
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/430798
PURE UUID: 6538138b-a51c-4721-aef5-4896af790473
ORCID for Kirsten Poore: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1455-0615

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 13 May 2019 16:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 05:51

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Contributors

Author: Hussain Darraj
Author: Mohammed Badedi
Author: Kirsten Poore ORCID iD
Author: Abdulrahman Hummadi
Author: Abdullah Khawaji
Author: Yahia Solan
Author: Ibrahim Zakry
Author: Abdullah Sabai
Author: Majid Darraj
Author: Dhayf Alrahman Mutawwam
Author: Mohammed Daghreeri
Author: safaa Sayed
Author: Wael Alaallah
Author: Abdulaziz Alfadhly
Author: Abdullah Alsabaani

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