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Scale-dependency in drivers of outdoor recreation in England

Scale-dependency in drivers of outdoor recreation in England
Scale-dependency in drivers of outdoor recreation in England
1. Managing landscapes for multiple, sometimes conflicting, objectives requires an understanding of the trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services (ES). These trade-offs and synergies are often the result of drivers acting at different scales. Therefore, in order to understand trade-offs and synergies it is important that we understand the scale dependency in drivers of ES.
2. Here, we examine scale dependencies in the drivers of outdoor recreation in England to better understand trade-offs between different aspects of this ES. We focus on outdoor recreation because it is culturally and economically important; it is the result of a range of social and biophysical attributes which vary at different scales; and proxies that are independent of these drivers exist.
3. First, we tested the hypothesis that a social media based proxy (photographs from Flickr) represents ‘destination’ recreation (e.g. day trips and overnight visits). We did so by comparing to a survey based proxy, which is known to represent ‘day-to-day’ recreation (e.g. dog walking, visiting local parks). Second, we examined the scale dependencies in the social and biophysical drivers of both types of outdoor recreation.
4. Flickr data were best explained by variables capturing supply of recreation; whereas the survey data were best explained by variables capturing demand for recreation. This confirms our hypothesis that Flickr data measure ‘destination’ recreation given that the survey data measure ‘day-to-day’ recreation. In both cases, the importance of demand variables increased with increasing spatial resolution.
5. Understanding what a proxy measures provides us with information about how to use it. We conclude that Flickr data may be useful to plan at broad scales, but that to plan for equitable day-to-day recreation, specially designed survey data may be more appropriate. Estimating the scale dependencies in drivers of outdoor recreation gets us a step closer to a mechanistic understanding of the social-ecological system.
2575-8314
406-416
Graham, Laura
bc76bad7-f0fd-4e94-acf9-c7450ec36ae2
Eigenbrod, Felix
43efc6ae-b129-45a2-8a34-e489b5f05827
Graham, Laura
bc76bad7-f0fd-4e94-acf9-c7450ec36ae2
Eigenbrod, Felix
43efc6ae-b129-45a2-8a34-e489b5f05827

Graham, Laura and Eigenbrod, Felix (2019) Scale-dependency in drivers of outdoor recreation in England. People and Nature, 1 (3), 406-416. (doi:10.1002/pan3.10042).

Record type: Article

Abstract

1. Managing landscapes for multiple, sometimes conflicting, objectives requires an understanding of the trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services (ES). These trade-offs and synergies are often the result of drivers acting at different scales. Therefore, in order to understand trade-offs and synergies it is important that we understand the scale dependency in drivers of ES.
2. Here, we examine scale dependencies in the drivers of outdoor recreation in England to better understand trade-offs between different aspects of this ES. We focus on outdoor recreation because it is culturally and economically important; it is the result of a range of social and biophysical attributes which vary at different scales; and proxies that are independent of these drivers exist.
3. First, we tested the hypothesis that a social media based proxy (photographs from Flickr) represents ‘destination’ recreation (e.g. day trips and overnight visits). We did so by comparing to a survey based proxy, which is known to represent ‘day-to-day’ recreation (e.g. dog walking, visiting local parks). Second, we examined the scale dependencies in the social and biophysical drivers of both types of outdoor recreation.
4. Flickr data were best explained by variables capturing supply of recreation; whereas the survey data were best explained by variables capturing demand for recreation. This confirms our hypothesis that Flickr data measure ‘destination’ recreation given that the survey data measure ‘day-to-day’ recreation. In both cases, the importance of demand variables increased with increasing spatial resolution.
5. Understanding what a proxy measures provides us with information about how to use it. We conclude that Flickr data may be useful to plan at broad scales, but that to plan for equitable day-to-day recreation, specially designed survey data may be more appropriate. Estimating the scale dependencies in drivers of outdoor recreation gets us a step closer to a mechanistic understanding of the social-ecological system.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 25 June 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 24 July 2019
Published date: September 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 432106
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/432106
ISSN: 2575-8314
PURE UUID: 31336ff3-cd8b-46d0-a006-54ea3440ec5f
ORCID for Felix Eigenbrod: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8982-824X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 02 Jul 2019 16:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:56

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Contributors

Author: Laura Graham
Author: Felix Eigenbrod ORCID iD

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