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Neurofeedback for central neuropathic pain treatment: mental strategies used for successful neuromodulation

Neurofeedback for central neuropathic pain treatment: mental strategies used for successful neuromodulation
Neurofeedback for central neuropathic pain treatment: mental strategies used for successful neuromodulation
Introduction
Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is a debilitating problem prevalent in 65% of the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. EEG-based neurofeedback (ENF) is a process where individuals self-modulate brain activity (neuromodulation) using mental strategies (MS). Preliminary research suggests ENF has potential to reduce CNP after SCI.

Objective
This exploratory study examined people’s MS used for ENF neuromodulation, with the aim of understanding the learning process.

Method
Twelve patients with CNP after SCI were asked to use ENF on a maximum of eight visits, each consisting of six five-minute ENF sessions; no neuromodulation guidance was given. Resting EEG with eyes open was recorded (baseline) before ENF sessions. Participants were asked at the end of each visit about their MS and perceived-neuromodulation performance. This was compared to actual-performance using frequency-spectrum analysis of their EEG activity and comparing baseline to ENF activity. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.

Main Results and Discussion
Interviews revealed that mental state (e.g., attentiveness), not MS (e.g., imagination), was associated with neuromodulation success. Unsuccessful patients reported they could not differentiate between successful and unsuccessful strategies; this may be due to an inefficient method of displaying EEG activity.

Conclusion
MS are a mediator, where MS are used to invoke specific cognitive processes (mental state) needed for ENF neuromodulation. The display of EEG activity may need modifications to facilitate learning ENF neuromodulation. Detailed results linking neuromodulation success rates and mental state will be presented.
Learning, neurofeedback, neuropathic pain, Spinal cord injury, QUALITATIVE
Anil, Krithika
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Burridge, Jane
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Cotter, Imogen
05794925-9f67-48e7-9c0f-77fbab2d5bfe
Demain, Sara
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Simpson, David
53674880-f381-4cc9-8505-6a97eeac3c2a
Taylor, Julian
9ace0284-045c-4629-a733-6226a2b040f6
Vuckovic, aleksandra
38b2dbed-989f-49ed-87ec-12eee9c08c47
Anil, Krithika
2b2690a5-37f4-4b3e-9b4c-df721d12a2f3
Burridge, Jane
0110e9ea-0884-4982-a003-cb6307f38f64
Cotter, Imogen
05794925-9f67-48e7-9c0f-77fbab2d5bfe
Demain, Sara
a75acfdb-e3d2-4cfe-b5d2-5f085f690631
Simpson, David
53674880-f381-4cc9-8505-6a97eeac3c2a
Taylor, Julian
9ace0284-045c-4629-a733-6226a2b040f6
Vuckovic, aleksandra
38b2dbed-989f-49ed-87ec-12eee9c08c47

Anil, Krithika, Burridge, Jane, Cotter, Imogen, Demain, Sara, Simpson, David, Taylor, Julian and Vuckovic, aleksandra (2019) Neurofeedback for central neuropathic pain treatment: mental strategies used for successful neuromodulation. In Congress on NeuroRehabilitation and Neural Repair 2019. 1 pp . (In Press)

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)

Abstract

Introduction
Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is a debilitating problem prevalent in 65% of the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. EEG-based neurofeedback (ENF) is a process where individuals self-modulate brain activity (neuromodulation) using mental strategies (MS). Preliminary research suggests ENF has potential to reduce CNP after SCI.

Objective
This exploratory study examined people’s MS used for ENF neuromodulation, with the aim of understanding the learning process.

Method
Twelve patients with CNP after SCI were asked to use ENF on a maximum of eight visits, each consisting of six five-minute ENF sessions; no neuromodulation guidance was given. Resting EEG with eyes open was recorded (baseline) before ENF sessions. Participants were asked at the end of each visit about their MS and perceived-neuromodulation performance. This was compared to actual-performance using frequency-spectrum analysis of their EEG activity and comparing baseline to ENF activity. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.

Main Results and Discussion
Interviews revealed that mental state (e.g., attentiveness), not MS (e.g., imagination), was associated with neuromodulation success. Unsuccessful patients reported they could not differentiate between successful and unsuccessful strategies; this may be due to an inefficient method of displaying EEG activity.

Conclusion
MS are a mediator, where MS are used to invoke specific cognitive processes (mental state) needed for ENF neuromodulation. The display of EEG activity may need modifications to facilitate learning ENF neuromodulation. Detailed results linking neuromodulation success rates and mental state will be presented.

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Abstract_20190121 - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 22 February 2019
Venue - Dates: Third International Congress on Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair: From Science to Evidence-Based Practice, , Maastricht, Netherlands, 2019-05-22 - 2019-05-24
Keywords: Learning, neurofeedback, neuropathic pain, Spinal cord injury, QUALITATIVE

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 434091
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/434091
PURE UUID: 63520987-f047-44da-a206-f2ac71e8e2d2
ORCID for Krithika Anil: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8027-1665
ORCID for Jane Burridge: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3497-6725

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 Sep 2019 16:30
Last modified: 22 Nov 2021 02:42

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Contributors

Author: Krithika Anil ORCID iD
Author: Jane Burridge ORCID iD
Author: Imogen Cotter
Author: Sara Demain
Author: David Simpson
Author: Julian Taylor
Author: aleksandra Vuckovic

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