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Microbial epidemiology and carriage studies for the evaluation of vaccines

Microbial epidemiology and carriage studies for the evaluation of vaccines
Microbial epidemiology and carriage studies for the evaluation of vaccines
Respiratory tract infections are responsible for over 2.8 million deaths per year worldwide. Colonization is the first step in the process of microbes occupying the respiratory tract, which may lead to subsequent infection. Carriage, in contrast, is defined as the occupation of microbial species in the respiratory tract. The duration of carriage may be affected by host immunity, the composition and interactions between members of the microbial community, and the characteristics of colonizing bacteria, including physiology associated with being present in a bacterial biofilm. Numerous vaccines have been implemented to control infections caused by bacteria that can colonize and be subsequently carried. Such vaccines are often species-specific and may target a limited number of strains thereby creating a vacant niche in the upper respiratory tract. Epidemiological changes of bacteria found in both carriage and disease have therefore been widely reported, since the vacant niche is filled by other strains or species. In this review, we discuss the use of carriage-prevalence studies in vaccine evaluation and argue that such studies are essential for (1) examining the epidemiology of carriage before and after the introduction of new vaccines, (2) understanding the dynamics of the respiratory tract flora and (3) identifying the disease potential of emerging strains. In an era of increasing antibiotic resistance, bacterial carriage-prevalence studies are essential for monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes.
carriage, colonisation, epidemiology, vaccine, respiratory
0022-2615
1408-1418
Coughtrie, Abigail, Lois
38635fa8-f3de-49e8-9906-54a787177c55
Jefferies, Johanna M.
d3c7f86b-c08e-4c8f-9ce1-c2ac5a511746
Cleary, David
f4079c6d-d54b-4108-b346-b0069035bec0
Doncaster, C. Patrick
a6e244b5-a422-496b-8c17-a11dc9ebb489
Faust, Saul
f97df780-9f9b-418e-b349-7adf63e150c1
Kraaijeveld, Alex
4af1791a-15cf-48b9-9fd8-b3a7fb450409
Moore, Michael V.
ef6625a2-ca86-48f4-9c55-2a2a96e1bcc5
Mullee, Mark
fd3f91c3-5e95-4f56-8d73-260824eeb362
Roderick, Paul J.
8dfdf550-f3cd-4e5b-991b-815dfdf686ef
Webb, Jeremy
ec0a5c4e-86cc-4ae9-b390-7298f5d65f8d
Yuen, Ho Ming
3815a0a1-7b9f-4d06-8a40-1bc636e1f286
Clarke, Stuart
f7d7f7a2-4b1f-4b36-883a-0f967e73fb17
Coughtrie, Abigail, Lois
38635fa8-f3de-49e8-9906-54a787177c55
Jefferies, Johanna M.
d3c7f86b-c08e-4c8f-9ce1-c2ac5a511746
Cleary, David
f4079c6d-d54b-4108-b346-b0069035bec0
Doncaster, C. Patrick
a6e244b5-a422-496b-8c17-a11dc9ebb489
Faust, Saul
f97df780-9f9b-418e-b349-7adf63e150c1
Kraaijeveld, Alex
4af1791a-15cf-48b9-9fd8-b3a7fb450409
Moore, Michael V.
ef6625a2-ca86-48f4-9c55-2a2a96e1bcc5
Mullee, Mark
fd3f91c3-5e95-4f56-8d73-260824eeb362
Roderick, Paul J.
8dfdf550-f3cd-4e5b-991b-815dfdf686ef
Webb, Jeremy
ec0a5c4e-86cc-4ae9-b390-7298f5d65f8d
Yuen, Ho Ming
3815a0a1-7b9f-4d06-8a40-1bc636e1f286
Clarke, Stuart
f7d7f7a2-4b1f-4b36-883a-0f967e73fb17

Coughtrie, Abigail, Lois, Jefferies, Johanna M., Cleary, David, Doncaster, C. Patrick, Faust, Saul, Kraaijeveld, Alex, Moore, Michael V., Mullee, Mark, Roderick, Paul J., Webb, Jeremy, Yuen, Ho Ming and Clarke, Stuart (2019) Microbial epidemiology and carriage studies for the evaluation of vaccines. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 68 (10), 1408-1418. (doi:10.1099/jmm.0.001046).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Respiratory tract infections are responsible for over 2.8 million deaths per year worldwide. Colonization is the first step in the process of microbes occupying the respiratory tract, which may lead to subsequent infection. Carriage, in contrast, is defined as the occupation of microbial species in the respiratory tract. The duration of carriage may be affected by host immunity, the composition and interactions between members of the microbial community, and the characteristics of colonizing bacteria, including physiology associated with being present in a bacterial biofilm. Numerous vaccines have been implemented to control infections caused by bacteria that can colonize and be subsequently carried. Such vaccines are often species-specific and may target a limited number of strains thereby creating a vacant niche in the upper respiratory tract. Epidemiological changes of bacteria found in both carriage and disease have therefore been widely reported, since the vacant niche is filled by other strains or species. In this review, we discuss the use of carriage-prevalence studies in vaccine evaluation and argue that such studies are essential for (1) examining the epidemiology of carriage before and after the introduction of new vaccines, (2) understanding the dynamics of the respiratory tract flora and (3) identifying the disease potential of emerging strains. In an era of increasing antibiotic resistance, bacterial carriage-prevalence studies are essential for monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes.

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Microbial epidemiology and carriage studies for the evaluation of vaccines - Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only until 16 August 2020.
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Accepted/In Press date: 8 July 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 16 August 2019
Published date: 1 October 2019
Keywords: carriage, colonisation, epidemiology, vaccine, respiratory

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 434099
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/434099
ISSN: 0022-2615
PURE UUID: fe7f61b9-f60e-4cfc-b636-4ac60f1255a2
ORCID for David Cleary: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4533-0700
ORCID for Saul Faust: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3410-7642
ORCID for Alex Kraaijeveld: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8543-2640
ORCID for Jeremy Webb: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2068-8589
ORCID for Stuart Clarke: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7009-1548

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 Sep 2019 16:30
Last modified: 18 Oct 2019 00:35

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Contributors

Author: Abigail, Lois Coughtrie
Author: Johanna M. Jefferies
Author: David Cleary ORCID iD
Author: C. Patrick Doncaster
Author: Saul Faust ORCID iD
Author: Michael V. Moore
Author: Mark Mullee
Author: Paul J. Roderick
Author: Jeremy Webb ORCID iD
Author: Ho Ming Yuen
Author: Stuart Clarke ORCID iD

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