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The expression of anaerobic metabolites in sweat and sebum from human skin subjected to intermittent and continuous mechanical loading

The expression of anaerobic metabolites in sweat and sebum from human skin subjected to intermittent and continuous mechanical loading
The expression of anaerobic metabolites in sweat and sebum from human skin subjected to intermittent and continuous mechanical loading
Pressure ulcers (PUs) represent a substantial burden to both patients and healthcare providers. Accordingly, effective prevention strategies should follow early detection of PUs. Anaerobic metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate, are promising noninvasive biomarkers indicative of tissue ischaemia, one of the major mechanisms leading to PU development. The aim of this study was to investigate if the temporal release profile of these metabolites in sweat and sebum is sensitive to detect local tissue changes resulting from prolonged mechanical loads.

The sacrum of healthy volunteers was subjected to two different loading protocols. After a baseline measurement, the left and right side of the sacrum were subjected to continuous and intermittent loading regimen, respectively, at a pressure of 100 mmHg. Biomarker samples were collected every 20 min, with a total experimental time of 140 min. Sweat was collected at 37 ∘C and 80% relative humidity, and sebum at ambient conditions, from 11 to 13 volunteers, respectively. Both samples were analysed for lactate and pyruvate concentrations using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography mass spectrometry. Prior to analysis metabolite concentrations were normalized to individual baseline levels and, in the case of sweat, additional normalization was performed to an unloaded control site to account for fatigue of sweat glands.

Although substantial variability was present, the temporal release profiles of both sweat and sebum metabolites reflected the applied loading regimen with increased levels upon load application, and recovery to baseline levels following load removal. Highest relative increases were 20% and 30% for sweat lactate and pyruvate, respectively, and 41% for sebum lactate. Sebum pyruvate was not present in quantifiable amounts. There was a linear correlation between the individual responses to intermittent and continuous loading.

The present study revealed that metabolite biomarkers in both sweat and sebum were sensitive to the application of mechanical loads, indicative of local ischaemia within skin and soft tissues. Similar trends in metabolic biomarkers were observed in response to intermittent and continuous loading regimens in both sweat and sebum. Metabolites represent a potential means to monitor the health of loaded skin and soft tissues informing timely interventions of PU prevention.
0965-206X
186-193
Soetens, J.F.J.
c1f04184-0447-4178-a13d-0b4f007ada6e
Worsley, P.R.
6d33aee3-ef43-468d-aef6-86d190de6756
Herniman, Julie
530b1a36-1386-4602-8df7-defa6eb3512b
Langley, G.J.
7ac80d61-b91d-4261-ad17-255f94ea21ea
Bader, D.L.
9884d4f6-2607-4d48-bf0c-62bdcc0d1dbf
Oomens, C.W.J.
b4884336-5230-4055-9df2-5400c1c57018
Soetens, J.F.J.
c1f04184-0447-4178-a13d-0b4f007ada6e
Worsley, P.R.
6d33aee3-ef43-468d-aef6-86d190de6756
Herniman, Julie
530b1a36-1386-4602-8df7-defa6eb3512b
Langley, G.J.
7ac80d61-b91d-4261-ad17-255f94ea21ea
Bader, D.L.
9884d4f6-2607-4d48-bf0c-62bdcc0d1dbf
Oomens, C.W.J.
b4884336-5230-4055-9df2-5400c1c57018

Soetens, J.F.J., Worsley, P.R., Herniman, Julie, Langley, G.J., Bader, D.L. and Oomens, C.W.J. (2019) The expression of anaerobic metabolites in sweat and sebum from human skin subjected to intermittent and continuous mechanical loading. Journal of Tissue Viability, 28 (4), 186-193. (doi:10.1016/j.jtv.2019.10.001).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Pressure ulcers (PUs) represent a substantial burden to both patients and healthcare providers. Accordingly, effective prevention strategies should follow early detection of PUs. Anaerobic metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate, are promising noninvasive biomarkers indicative of tissue ischaemia, one of the major mechanisms leading to PU development. The aim of this study was to investigate if the temporal release profile of these metabolites in sweat and sebum is sensitive to detect local tissue changes resulting from prolonged mechanical loads.

The sacrum of healthy volunteers was subjected to two different loading protocols. After a baseline measurement, the left and right side of the sacrum were subjected to continuous and intermittent loading regimen, respectively, at a pressure of 100 mmHg. Biomarker samples were collected every 20 min, with a total experimental time of 140 min. Sweat was collected at 37 ∘C and 80% relative humidity, and sebum at ambient conditions, from 11 to 13 volunteers, respectively. Both samples were analysed for lactate and pyruvate concentrations using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography mass spectrometry. Prior to analysis metabolite concentrations were normalized to individual baseline levels and, in the case of sweat, additional normalization was performed to an unloaded control site to account for fatigue of sweat glands.

Although substantial variability was present, the temporal release profiles of both sweat and sebum metabolites reflected the applied loading regimen with increased levels upon load application, and recovery to baseline levels following load removal. Highest relative increases were 20% and 30% for sweat lactate and pyruvate, respectively, and 41% for sebum lactate. Sebum pyruvate was not present in quantifiable amounts. There was a linear correlation between the individual responses to intermittent and continuous loading.

The present study revealed that metabolite biomarkers in both sweat and sebum were sensitive to the application of mechanical loads, indicative of local ischaemia within skin and soft tissues. Similar trends in metabolic biomarkers were observed in response to intermittent and continuous loading regimens in both sweat and sebum. Metabolites represent a potential means to monitor the health of loaded skin and soft tissues informing timely interventions of PU prevention.

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The expression of anaerobic metabolites in sweat and sebum from human skin subjected to intermittent and continuous mechanical loading - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 6 October 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 21 October 2019
Published date: November 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 435261
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/435261
ISSN: 0965-206X
PURE UUID: 1f1bc149-7b80-43c8-8a38-5539d3ae1436
ORCID for P.R. Worsley: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0145-5042
ORCID for Julie Herniman: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4834-1093
ORCID for G.J. Langley: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8323-7235
ORCID for D.L. Bader: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1208-3507

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 29 Oct 2019 17:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 05:35

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Contributors

Author: J.F.J. Soetens
Author: P.R. Worsley ORCID iD
Author: Julie Herniman ORCID iD
Author: G.J. Langley ORCID iD
Author: D.L. Bader ORCID iD
Author: C.W.J. Oomens

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