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A multilevel approach to correlates of anaemia in women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: findings from a nationally representative survey

A multilevel approach to correlates of anaemia in women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: findings from a nationally representative survey
A multilevel approach to correlates of anaemia in women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: findings from a nationally representative survey
Background/Objectives:
Anaemia accounts for a significant proportion of pre- and post-partum morbidity and mortality in low-income countries with sequelae, including an increased risk of infection. Factors contributing to anaemia need to be addressed through the introduction of evidence-based measures to control and prevent the disease. We aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia in women of child-bearing age in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and investigate the associated individual, household and community level factors.

Subjects/Methods:
Cross sectional representative population data from the 2013–2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was used. The primary outcome was anaemia in women, stratified according to pregnancy in those of child-bearing age. A haemoglobin level of below 11 g/dl for pregnant women and 12 g/dl for non-pregnant women was used as the indicator of anaemia. Using a three-level random intercept model this study explored risk factors at individual, household and community levels and quantified the observed and unobserved variations between households and communities.

Results:
Thirty-eight percent of women in the DRC are anaemic. Anaemia is significantly higher in younger, pregnant and underweight women, as well as those with comorbidities, including HIV and malaria who are living in the capital city Kinshasa. Anaemia varies within and between households and communities in the DRC.

Conclusions:
Integrated approaches to reduce anaemia in settings with high malaria and HIV prevalence such as the DRC should target households.
0954-3007
Kandala, Ngianga Ii
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Pallikadavath, Saseendran
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Amos Channon, Andrew
5a60607c-6861-4960-a81d-504169d5880c
Knight, Gavin
993fd477-69ea-497b-88a5-9beaa2bd30a7
Janet Madise, Nyovani
697de785-b37a-469e-91ce-7e990b200800
Kandala, Ngianga Ii
1e3dd3b3-37f5-4975-b046-847760fabf09
Pallikadavath, Saseendran
ff6057a5-d98c-4dc8-a171-38db705eceda
Amos Channon, Andrew
5a60607c-6861-4960-a81d-504169d5880c
Knight, Gavin
993fd477-69ea-497b-88a5-9beaa2bd30a7
Janet Madise, Nyovani
697de785-b37a-469e-91ce-7e990b200800

Kandala, Ngianga Ii, Pallikadavath, Saseendran, Amos Channon, Andrew, Knight, Gavin and Janet Madise, Nyovani (2019) A multilevel approach to correlates of anaemia in women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: findings from a nationally representative survey. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (doi:10.1038/s41430-019-0524-8).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background/Objectives:
Anaemia accounts for a significant proportion of pre- and post-partum morbidity and mortality in low-income countries with sequelae, including an increased risk of infection. Factors contributing to anaemia need to be addressed through the introduction of evidence-based measures to control and prevent the disease. We aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia in women of child-bearing age in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and investigate the associated individual, household and community level factors.

Subjects/Methods:
Cross sectional representative population data from the 2013–2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was used. The primary outcome was anaemia in women, stratified according to pregnancy in those of child-bearing age. A haemoglobin level of below 11 g/dl for pregnant women and 12 g/dl for non-pregnant women was used as the indicator of anaemia. Using a three-level random intercept model this study explored risk factors at individual, household and community levels and quantified the observed and unobserved variations between households and communities.

Results:
Thirty-eight percent of women in the DRC are anaemic. Anaemia is significantly higher in younger, pregnant and underweight women, as well as those with comorbidities, including HIV and malaria who are living in the capital city Kinshasa. Anaemia varies within and between households and communities in the DRC.

Conclusions:
Integrated approaches to reduce anaemia in settings with high malaria and HIV prevalence such as the DRC should target households.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 22 October 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 4 November 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 438420
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/438420
ISSN: 0954-3007
PURE UUID: e7d83194-a4b9-421a-9159-488b0170f60c
ORCID for Andrew Amos Channon: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4855-0418

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Date deposited: 09 Mar 2020 17:33
Last modified: 30 Oct 2023 02:47

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Contributors

Author: Ngianga Ii Kandala
Author: Saseendran Pallikadavath
Author: Gavin Knight
Author: Nyovani Janet Madise

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