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Microbiota-independent immunological effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases

Microbiota-independent immunological effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases
Microbiota-independent immunological effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases
The aim of this paper is to review the effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on immunity, focusing on their microbiota-independent mechanisms of action, as well as to explore their potential beneficial role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). IBD are chronic, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Individuals with IBD have an aberrant immune response to commensal microbiota, resulting in extensive mucosal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability. NDO are prebiotic fibres well known for their role in supporting intestinal health through modulation of the gut microbiota. NDO reach the colon intact and are fermented by commensal bacteria, resulting in the production of short chain fatty acids with immunomodulatory properties. In disease states characterised by increased gut permeability, prebiotics may also bypass the gut barrier and directly interact with intestinal and systemic immune cells, as demonstrated in patients with IBD and in infants with an immature gut. In vitro models show that fructooligosaccharides, inulin and galactooligosaccharides exert microbiota-independent effects on immunity by binding to toll-like receptors on monocytes, macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells and by modulating cytokine production and immune cell maturation. Moreover, animal models and human supplementation studies demonstrate that some prebiotics, including inulin and lactulose, might reduce intestinal inflammation and IBD symptoms. Although there is convincing preliminary data to support NDO as immunomodulators in the management of IBD, their mechanisms of action are still unclear and larger standardised studies need to be performed using a wider range of prebiotics.
0029-6651
468 - 478
Del Fabbro, Stefania
5a48993c-a34b-4aff-92fc-65b94df566d5
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Childs, Caroline
ea17ccc1-2eac-4f67-96c7-a0c4d9dfd9c5
Del Fabbro, Stefania
5a48993c-a34b-4aff-92fc-65b94df566d5
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Childs, Caroline
ea17ccc1-2eac-4f67-96c7-a0c4d9dfd9c5

Del Fabbro, Stefania, Calder, Philip and Childs, Caroline (2020) Microbiota-independent immunological effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 79 (4), 468 - 478. (doi:10.1017/S0029665120006953).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to review the effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on immunity, focusing on their microbiota-independent mechanisms of action, as well as to explore their potential beneficial role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). IBD are chronic, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Individuals with IBD have an aberrant immune response to commensal microbiota, resulting in extensive mucosal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability. NDO are prebiotic fibres well known for their role in supporting intestinal health through modulation of the gut microbiota. NDO reach the colon intact and are fermented by commensal bacteria, resulting in the production of short chain fatty acids with immunomodulatory properties. In disease states characterised by increased gut permeability, prebiotics may also bypass the gut barrier and directly interact with intestinal and systemic immune cells, as demonstrated in patients with IBD and in infants with an immature gut. In vitro models show that fructooligosaccharides, inulin and galactooligosaccharides exert microbiota-independent effects on immunity by binding to toll-like receptors on monocytes, macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells and by modulating cytokine production and immune cell maturation. Moreover, animal models and human supplementation studies demonstrate that some prebiotics, including inulin and lactulose, might reduce intestinal inflammation and IBD symptoms. Although there is convincing preliminary data to support NDO as immunomodulators in the management of IBD, their mechanisms of action are still unclear and larger standardised studies need to be performed using a wider range of prebiotics.

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Review manuscript_PCC_SDF_CEC_FENS 2019_PostGrad Comp_PNS_ACCEPTED - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 27 March 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 29 April 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 439051
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/439051
ISSN: 0029-6651
PURE UUID: 370e74aa-4063-4a3a-b948-2b0ac1592af6
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X
ORCID for Caroline Childs: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6832-224X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 02 Apr 2020 16:31
Last modified: 22 Nov 2021 02:57

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Contributors

Author: Stefania Del Fabbro
Author: Philip Calder ORCID iD
Author: Caroline Childs ORCID iD

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