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The effect of shape and size distribution of abrasive particles on the volume loss of enamel using micro-abrasion

The effect of shape and size distribution of abrasive particles on the volume loss of enamel using micro-abrasion
The effect of shape and size distribution of abrasive particles on the volume loss of enamel using micro-abrasion
Wear of enamel during tooth brushing is a complex phenomenon with many variables affecting the level of loss. Toothpastes contain angular abrasive particles at a concentration of 12%–15% v/v abrasive designed to remove biofilm and extrinsic stains that also have the potential to harm the tooth enamel resulting in wear. Toothpastes contain multi-modal particles in the size range of 4μm–12μm. The aim of this paper is to develop an understanding of the relationship between the combined effects of particle shape, size, size distribution and load on the volume loss of enamel under abrasive testing. Micro-abrasion testing using a Nylon ball, to simulate the toothbrush, was undertaken on hydrated bovine enamel disks using volume concentrations of 5% – 20% v/v alumina and silica. Post experimental surface analysis was performed to analyse the wear scar morphology and groove analysis. The synergistic effects were calculated of bimodal particles vs. mono sized particles. Mono-sized particles as compared to bimodal, appeared to give the best outcome and least wear of enamel. A positive synergy existed for the alumina and silica bimodal tests, indicating the bimodal particle distribution was causing more wear than the mono-sized particles. The mechanism of material removal was a combination of crushing and fracture of the enamel prisms (rods), followed by micro-chipping and removal of enamel. The magnitude and the distribution of the particle sizes is the most dominant factor in determining the levels of wear, with smaller particles and narrow distributions of the particle size reducing the magnitude of wear. The shape of the particles is also a major factor influencing wear, with the spherical tests generating lower wear rates than the angular tests.

abrasive particle, enamel, micro abrasion, synergy, wear mechanisms
0043-1648
Baig, M.
c46e3ab7-6912-49e0-9d59-b67443bced9a
Cook, R.
06f8322d-81be-4f82-9326-19e55541c78f
Pratten, J
405387c3-faf3-48de-bc50-74d2c05ab812
Wood, R.
d9523d31-41a8-459a-8831-70e29ffe8a73
Baig, M.
c46e3ab7-6912-49e0-9d59-b67443bced9a
Cook, R.
06f8322d-81be-4f82-9326-19e55541c78f
Pratten, J
405387c3-faf3-48de-bc50-74d2c05ab812
Wood, R.
d9523d31-41a8-459a-8831-70e29ffe8a73

Baig, M., Cook, R., Pratten, J and Wood, R. (2020) The effect of shape and size distribution of abrasive particles on the volume loss of enamel using micro-abrasion. Wear, 448-449, [203212]. (doi:10.1016/j.wear.2020.203212).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Wear of enamel during tooth brushing is a complex phenomenon with many variables affecting the level of loss. Toothpastes contain angular abrasive particles at a concentration of 12%–15% v/v abrasive designed to remove biofilm and extrinsic stains that also have the potential to harm the tooth enamel resulting in wear. Toothpastes contain multi-modal particles in the size range of 4μm–12μm. The aim of this paper is to develop an understanding of the relationship between the combined effects of particle shape, size, size distribution and load on the volume loss of enamel under abrasive testing. Micro-abrasion testing using a Nylon ball, to simulate the toothbrush, was undertaken on hydrated bovine enamel disks using volume concentrations of 5% – 20% v/v alumina and silica. Post experimental surface analysis was performed to analyse the wear scar morphology and groove analysis. The synergistic effects were calculated of bimodal particles vs. mono sized particles. Mono-sized particles as compared to bimodal, appeared to give the best outcome and least wear of enamel. A positive synergy existed for the alumina and silica bimodal tests, indicating the bimodal particle distribution was causing more wear than the mono-sized particles. The mechanism of material removal was a combination of crushing and fracture of the enamel prisms (rods), followed by micro-chipping and removal of enamel. The magnitude and the distribution of the particle sizes is the most dominant factor in determining the levels of wear, with smaller particles and narrow distributions of the particle size reducing the magnitude of wear. The shape of the particles is also a major factor influencing wear, with the spherical tests generating lower wear rates than the angular tests.

Text
29.01.20_TE66_microabrasion_paper_Wear - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 31 January 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 7 February 2020
Published date: 15 May 2020
Additional Information: Funding Information: This research was sponsored by GSK Consumer Healthcare. Publisher Copyright: © 2020
Keywords: abrasive particle, enamel, micro abrasion, synergy, wear mechanisms

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 439105
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/439105
ISSN: 0043-1648
PURE UUID: 9686bfa8-07b8-4f07-baa1-806e3483af67
ORCID for R. Cook: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2468-5820
ORCID for R. Wood: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0681-9239

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 03 Apr 2020 16:30
Last modified: 22 Sep 2022 04:01

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Contributors

Author: M. Baig
Author: R. Cook ORCID iD
Author: J Pratten
Author: R. Wood ORCID iD

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