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Porous silica-pillared MXenes with controllable interlayer distances for long-life Na-ion batteries

Porous silica-pillared MXenes with controllable interlayer distances for long-life Na-ion batteries
Porous silica-pillared MXenes with controllable interlayer distances for long-life Na-ion batteries

MXenes are a recently discovered class of two-dimensional materials that have shown great potential as electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite their promise in this area, MXenes can still suffer limitations in the form of restricted ion accessibility between the closely spaced multistacked MXene layers, causing low capacities and poor cycle life. Pillaring, a strategy where a secondary species is inserted between layers, has been used to increase interlayer spacings in clays with great success, but has had limited application in MXenes. We report a new amine-assisted pillaring methodology that successfully intercalates silica-based pillars between Ti3C2 layers. Using this technique, the interlayer spacing can be controlled with the choice of amine and calcination temperature, up to a maximum of 3.2 nm, the largest interlayer spacing reported for an MXene. Another effect of the pillaring is a dramatic increase in surface area, achieving BET surface areas of 235 m2 g-1, a sixty-fold increase over the unpillared material and the highest reported for MXenes using an intercalation-based method. The intercalation mechanism was revealed by different characterisation techniques, allowing the surface chemistry to be optimised for the pillaring process. The porous MXene was tested for Na-ion battery applications, and showed superior capacity, rate capability and remarkable stability compared with non-pillared materials, retaining 98.5% capacity between the 50th and 100th cycles. These results demonstrate the applicability and promise of pillaring techniques applied to MXenes, providing a new approach to optimising their properties for a range of applications. Porous MXenes are very promising materials for a range of applications including energy storage, conversion, catalysis and gas separations.

0743-7463
4370-4382
Maughan, Philip A.
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Seymour, Valerie R.
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Bernardo-Gavito, Ramón
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Kelly, Daniel J.
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Shao, Shouqi
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Tantisriyanurak, Supakorn
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Dawson, Robert
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Haigh, Sarah J.
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Young, Robert J.
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Tapia-Ruiz, Nuria
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Bimbo, Nuno
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Maughan, Philip A.
3bdf4190-8639-40b1-a522-3ab0ca0cfc0c
Seymour, Valerie R.
13587906-718e-4005-b7d6-bc7d522b5594
Bernardo-Gavito, Ramón
cf45cbf2-f5e7-47f9-bb3e-30cbf5005b10
Kelly, Daniel J.
00069e01-104b-47f7-975e-a1c8d64df7cf
Shao, Shouqi
f97a0153-41fd-46a3-bf60-e37485913372
Tantisriyanurak, Supakorn
d0a19e0b-6f9c-4262-994d-18bf45bfbaf6
Dawson, Robert
59274807-6326-410d-a3b8-2ff99d9b2f29
Haigh, Sarah J.
8559c49b-a11b-4afb-8379-0af0a5bfbf42
Young, Robert J.
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Tapia-Ruiz, Nuria
3983b001-dcd1-4780-8a5b-ec8e27b78e9b
Bimbo, Nuno
53d9fc24-e2c1-4e2d-8d75-8dc640d8adda

Maughan, Philip A., Seymour, Valerie R., Bernardo-Gavito, Ramón, Kelly, Daniel J., Shao, Shouqi, Tantisriyanurak, Supakorn, Dawson, Robert, Haigh, Sarah J., Young, Robert J., Tapia-Ruiz, Nuria and Bimbo, Nuno (2020) Porous silica-pillared MXenes with controllable interlayer distances for long-life Na-ion batteries. Langmuir, 36 (16), 4370-4382. (doi:10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00462).

Record type: Article

Abstract

MXenes are a recently discovered class of two-dimensional materials that have shown great potential as electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite their promise in this area, MXenes can still suffer limitations in the form of restricted ion accessibility between the closely spaced multistacked MXene layers, causing low capacities and poor cycle life. Pillaring, a strategy where a secondary species is inserted between layers, has been used to increase interlayer spacings in clays with great success, but has had limited application in MXenes. We report a new amine-assisted pillaring methodology that successfully intercalates silica-based pillars between Ti3C2 layers. Using this technique, the interlayer spacing can be controlled with the choice of amine and calcination temperature, up to a maximum of 3.2 nm, the largest interlayer spacing reported for an MXene. Another effect of the pillaring is a dramatic increase in surface area, achieving BET surface areas of 235 m2 g-1, a sixty-fold increase over the unpillared material and the highest reported for MXenes using an intercalation-based method. The intercalation mechanism was revealed by different characterisation techniques, allowing the surface chemistry to be optimised for the pillaring process. The porous MXene was tested for Na-ion battery applications, and showed superior capacity, rate capability and remarkable stability compared with non-pillared materials, retaining 98.5% capacity between the 50th and 100th cycles. These results demonstrate the applicability and promise of pillaring techniques applied to MXenes, providing a new approach to optimising their properties for a range of applications. Porous MXenes are very promising materials for a range of applications including energy storage, conversion, catalysis and gas separations.

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MS_Maughan_et_al_2nd_review - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 10 April 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 19 April 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 439531
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/439531
ISSN: 0743-7463
PURE UUID: 7ac12762-d33d-47f4-bf1d-fb18e763a86c
ORCID for Nuno Bimbo: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8740-8284

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Date deposited: 24 Apr 2020 16:45
Last modified: 19 Apr 2021 04:01

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Contributors

Author: Philip A. Maughan
Author: Valerie R. Seymour
Author: Ramón Bernardo-Gavito
Author: Daniel J. Kelly
Author: Shouqi Shao
Author: Supakorn Tantisriyanurak
Author: Robert Dawson
Author: Sarah J. Haigh
Author: Robert J. Young
Author: Nuria Tapia-Ruiz
Author: Nuno Bimbo ORCID iD

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