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Two-dimensional apodized grating coupler for polarization-independent and surface-normal optical coupling

Two-dimensional apodized grating coupler for polarization-independent and surface-normal optical coupling
Two-dimensional apodized grating coupler for polarization-independent and surface-normal optical coupling

A four-port grating coupler with etched square holes is proposed and demonstrated for surface-normal and polarization independent coupling. Benefiting from the perfectly vertical coupling and 1 × 4 power splitting/combing scheme, efficient polarization independent operation was achieved. The coupling efficiency was further improved by grating apodization. According to the simulations, the proposed 2D apodized grating coupler can achieve a coupling efficiency (CE) of 64.5% (-1.9 dB), a low upward back-reflection of 8.5% (-11 dB), and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) lower than 0.04 dB across the wavelength range of 1520-1620 nm. A CE of 56.3% (-2.5 dB) was experimentally measured, with PDL below 0.3 dB within the C-band and lower than 0.5 dB within the L-band. Waveguide delay lines were used to compensate the waveguide channel phase differences at the output port.

Grating coupler, Silicon photonics
0733-8724
4037-4044
Zhang, Zanyun
7d5e0026-6f42-4bc6-b7d7-d8f814307f8c
Chen, Xia
64f6ab92-ca11-4489-8c03-52bc986209ae
Cheng, Qian
53938597-7e9c-4003-bf85-b193b4232710
Khokhar, Ali Z
2eedd1cc-8ac5-4f8e-be25-930bd3eae396
Zhang, Zan
e94846b6-968c-4c0f-918a-4984fa790303
Yan, Xingzhao
e1f3f636-74e4-42d5-81c7-04feec2b85ba
Huang, Beiju
ce385b4e-2ef7-41fb-a568-2ada9e13cdd3
Chen, Hongda
eec58f53-9d2c-40b3-9710-ae3518844270
Liu, Hongwei
4ede3cd4-8931-400e-b701-14fa8340f03f
Li, Hongqiang
61fdb586-d85b-405f-b15f-a920f7a8e95c
Thomson, David
17c1626c-2422-42c6-98e0-586ae220bcda
Reed, Graham
ca08dd60-c072-4d7d-b254-75714d570139
Zhang, Zanyun
7d5e0026-6f42-4bc6-b7d7-d8f814307f8c
Chen, Xia
64f6ab92-ca11-4489-8c03-52bc986209ae
Cheng, Qian
53938597-7e9c-4003-bf85-b193b4232710
Khokhar, Ali Z
2eedd1cc-8ac5-4f8e-be25-930bd3eae396
Zhang, Zan
e94846b6-968c-4c0f-918a-4984fa790303
Yan, Xingzhao
e1f3f636-74e4-42d5-81c7-04feec2b85ba
Huang, Beiju
ce385b4e-2ef7-41fb-a568-2ada9e13cdd3
Chen, Hongda
eec58f53-9d2c-40b3-9710-ae3518844270
Liu, Hongwei
4ede3cd4-8931-400e-b701-14fa8340f03f
Li, Hongqiang
61fdb586-d85b-405f-b15f-a920f7a8e95c
Thomson, David
17c1626c-2422-42c6-98e0-586ae220bcda
Reed, Graham
ca08dd60-c072-4d7d-b254-75714d570139

Zhang, Zanyun, Chen, Xia, Cheng, Qian, Khokhar, Ali Z, Zhang, Zan, Yan, Xingzhao, Huang, Beiju, Chen, Hongda, Liu, Hongwei, Li, Hongqiang, Thomson, David and Reed, Graham (2020) Two-dimensional apodized grating coupler for polarization-independent and surface-normal optical coupling. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 38 (15), 4037-4044, [9060954]. (doi:10.1109/JLT.2020.2986043).

Record type: Article

Abstract

A four-port grating coupler with etched square holes is proposed and demonstrated for surface-normal and polarization independent coupling. Benefiting from the perfectly vertical coupling and 1 × 4 power splitting/combing scheme, efficient polarization independent operation was achieved. The coupling efficiency was further improved by grating apodization. According to the simulations, the proposed 2D apodized grating coupler can achieve a coupling efficiency (CE) of 64.5% (-1.9 dB), a low upward back-reflection of 8.5% (-11 dB), and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) lower than 0.04 dB across the wavelength range of 1520-1620 nm. A CE of 56.3% (-2.5 dB) was experimentally measured, with PDL below 0.3 dB within the C-band and lower than 0.5 dB within the L-band. Waveguide delay lines were used to compensate the waveguide channel phase differences at the output port.

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manuscript-JLT-R3_final - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 1 April 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 8 April 2020
Published date: 1 August 2020
Additional Information: Funding Information: Manuscript received January 24, 2020; revised March 30, 2020; accepted April 1, 2020. Date of publication April 8, 2020; date of current version July 23, 2020. This work was supported in part by the National Key R&D Program of China under Grant 2018YFA0209000, in part by the EPSRC through programme grant “Silicon Photonics for Future Systems” (EP/L00044X/1), in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 6171101108, Grant 61704009, Grant 61675191, and Grant 61177078, and in part by the Tianjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology under Grant 18JCQNJC01800. (Corresponding author: Zanyun Zhang.) Zanyun Zhang, Qian Cheng, Hongwei Liu, and Hongqiang Li are with the Tianjin Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Systems, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China (e-mail: zhangzanyun@tiangong.edu.cn; 1831095436@tiangong.edu.cn; liuhongwei@tiangong.edu; lihongqiang@tiangong.edu.cn). Funding Information: The anthors would like to thank the China Scholarship Council for the award to Zanyun Zhang for 1 year’s research at the University of Southampton. D. J. Thomson acknowledges funding from the Royal Society for his University Research Fellowship. Publisher Copyright: © 1983-2012 IEEE.
Keywords: Grating coupler, Silicon photonics

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 439594
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/439594
ISSN: 0733-8724
PURE UUID: e7c3872e-1520-49ba-b2d6-7fdefa9fd6df
ORCID for Xia Chen: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0994-5401

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Date deposited: 27 Apr 2020 16:47
Last modified: 23 Sep 2022 01:43

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Contributors

Author: Zanyun Zhang
Author: Xia Chen ORCID iD
Author: Qian Cheng
Author: Ali Z Khokhar
Author: Zan Zhang
Author: Xingzhao Yan
Author: Beiju Huang
Author: Hongda Chen
Author: Hongwei Liu
Author: Hongqiang Li
Author: David Thomson
Author: Graham Reed

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