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Ion implantation of germanium into silicon for critical coupling control of racetrack resonators

Ion implantation of germanium into silicon for critical coupling control of racetrack resonators
Ion implantation of germanium into silicon for critical coupling control of racetrack resonators
Critical coupling control is an important concept used in integrated photonics to obtain functionalities such as single and coupled resonator optical filters and wavelength multiplexers. Realization of critical coupling depends strongly on device fabrication, and reproducibility is therefore an ongoing challenge.

Post-fabrication trimming offers a solution for achieving optimal performance for individual devices. Ion implantation into silicon causes crystalline lattice damage which results in an increase of the material’s refractive index and therefore creates a platform for realization of various optical devices. In recent years, we have presented results on the development of erasable gratings, optical filters and Mach-Zehnder interferometers using ion implantation of germanium into silicon. Here, we report the design, fabrication and testing of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators, trimmed by localised annealing of germanium ion implanted silicon using continuous and pulsed wave laser sources. The results demonstrate the ability to permanently tune the critical coupling condition of racetrack resonators. Compared to the pulsed lasers used for annealing, continuous wave lasers revealed much higher extinction ratio due to improved material quality after silicon recrystallization.
Ion implantation, laser annealing, optical filters, racetrack resonators, silicon photonics, trimming
0733-8724
1865-1873
Milošević, Milan
b28da945-84a5-4317-8896-6d9ea6a69589
Chen, Xia
64f6ab92-ca11-4489-8c03-52bc986209ae
Yu, Xingshi
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Dinsdale, Nicholas, Joseph
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Aktaş, Ozan
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Oo, Swe
6495f6da-8f17-4484-98fb-6151b4efbd9a
Khokhar, Ali
2eedd1cc-8ac5-4f8e-be25-930bd3eae396
Thomson, David
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Muskens, Otto
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Chong, Harold
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Peacock, Anna
685d924c-ef6b-401b-a0bd-acf1f8e758fc
Saito, Shinichi
14a5d20b-055e-4f48-9dda-267e88bd3fdc
Reed, Graham
ca08dd60-c072-4d7d-b254-75714d570139
Milošević, Milan
b28da945-84a5-4317-8896-6d9ea6a69589
Chen, Xia
64f6ab92-ca11-4489-8c03-52bc986209ae
Yu, Xingshi
7fb4e039-1fb0-4c2e-8567-43e97e77c997
Dinsdale, Nicholas, Joseph
4ec4aa55-6cce-43f7-9c35-cf8c16e8cf86
Aktaş, Ozan
2e90db41-f409-431f-9827-2e2577a52457
Oo, Swe
6495f6da-8f17-4484-98fb-6151b4efbd9a
Khokhar, Ali
2eedd1cc-8ac5-4f8e-be25-930bd3eae396
Thomson, David
17c1626c-2422-42c6-98e0-586ae220bcda
Muskens, Otto
2284101a-f9ef-4d79-8951-a6cda5bfc7f9
Chong, Harold
795aa67f-29e5-480f-b1bc-9bd5c0d558e1
Peacock, Anna
685d924c-ef6b-401b-a0bd-acf1f8e758fc
Saito, Shinichi
14a5d20b-055e-4f48-9dda-267e88bd3fdc
Reed, Graham
ca08dd60-c072-4d7d-b254-75714d570139

Milošević, Milan, Chen, Xia, Yu, Xingshi, Dinsdale, Nicholas, Joseph, Aktaş, Ozan, Oo, Swe, Khokhar, Ali, Thomson, David, Muskens, Otto, Chong, Harold, Peacock, Anna, Saito, Shinichi and Reed, Graham (2020) Ion implantation of germanium into silicon for critical coupling control of racetrack resonators. IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, 38 (7), 1865-1873, [8963701]. (doi:10.1109/JLT.2020.2967935).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Critical coupling control is an important concept used in integrated photonics to obtain functionalities such as single and coupled resonator optical filters and wavelength multiplexers. Realization of critical coupling depends strongly on device fabrication, and reproducibility is therefore an ongoing challenge.

Post-fabrication trimming offers a solution for achieving optimal performance for individual devices. Ion implantation into silicon causes crystalline lattice damage which results in an increase of the material’s refractive index and therefore creates a platform for realization of various optical devices. In recent years, we have presented results on the development of erasable gratings, optical filters and Mach-Zehnder interferometers using ion implantation of germanium into silicon. Here, we report the design, fabrication and testing of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators, trimmed by localised annealing of germanium ion implanted silicon using continuous and pulsed wave laser sources. The results demonstrate the ability to permanently tune the critical coupling condition of racetrack resonators. Compared to the pulsed lasers used for annealing, continuous wave lasers revealed much higher extinction ratio due to improved material quality after silicon recrystallization.

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Accepted/In Press date: 13 January 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 20 January 2020
Published date: 1 April 2020
Additional Information: Funding Information: Manuscript received September 23, 2019; revised December 11, 2019; accepted January 13, 2020. Date of publication January 20, 2020; date of current version April 1, 2020. This work was supported in part by the EPSRC projects “Silicon Photonics for Future Systems” (EP/L00044X/1), “Electronic-Photonic convergence” (EP/N013247/1), “Laser-Engineered Silicon” (EP/M022757/1), and “CORNERSTONE” (EP/L021129/1). The work of X. Yu was supported by the Scholarship Council of China. The work of D. J. Thomson was supported by the Royal Society. The work of G. T. Reed was supported in part by the Wolfson Foundation and the Royal Society under the Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award. (Corresponding author: Milan Milosevic.) M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, X. Yu, O. Aktas, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, A. C. Peacock, and G. T. Reed are with the Zepler Institute for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, U.K. (e-mail: m.milosevic@soton.ac.uk; xia.chen@soton.ac.uk; xy1m13@soton.ac.uk; o.aktas@soton.ac.uk; a.z.khokhar@soton.ac.uk; d.thomson@soton.ac.uk; acp@orc.soton.ac.uk; g.reed@soton.ac.uk). Publisher Copyright: © 1983-2012 IEEE.
Keywords: Ion implantation, laser annealing, optical filters, racetrack resonators, silicon photonics, trimming

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 440503
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/440503
ISSN: 0733-8724
PURE UUID: 8b98ef99-c1da-4d1e-9c6e-c0f7572de17c
ORCID for Xia Chen: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0994-5401
ORCID for Nicholas, Joseph Dinsdale: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9870-5700
ORCID for Ozan Aktaş: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2255-7761
ORCID for Otto Muskens: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0693-5504
ORCID for Harold Chong: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7110-5761
ORCID for Anna Peacock: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1940-7172
ORCID for Shinichi Saito: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1539-1182

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Date deposited: 06 May 2020 16:30
Last modified: 28 Oct 2022 01:53

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Contributors

Author: Milan Milošević
Author: Xia Chen ORCID iD
Author: Xingshi Yu
Author: Nicholas, Joseph Dinsdale ORCID iD
Author: Ozan Aktaş ORCID iD
Author: Swe Oo
Author: Ali Khokhar
Author: David Thomson
Author: Otto Muskens ORCID iD
Author: Harold Chong ORCID iD
Author: Anna Peacock ORCID iD
Author: Shinichi Saito ORCID iD
Author: Graham Reed

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