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Eicosanoids

Eicosanoids
Eicosanoids
This article describes the pathways of eicosanoid synthesis, eicosanoid receptors, the action of eicosanoids in different physiological systems, the roles of eicosanoids in selected diseases, and the major inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis and action. Eicosanoids are oxidised derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) formed by the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (cytP450) pathways. Arachidonic acid (ARA) is the usual substrate for eicosanoid synthesis. The COX pathways form prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs), the LOX pathways form leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs), and the cytP450 pathways form various epoxy, hydroxy and dihydroxy derivatives. Eicosanoids are highly bioactive acting on many cell types through cell membrane G-protein coupled receptors, although some eicosanoids are also ligands for nuclear receptors. Because they are rapidly catabolised, eicosanoids mainly act locally to the site of their production. Many eicosanoids have multiple, sometimes pleiotropic, effects on inflammation and immunity. The most widely studied is PGE2. Many eicosanoids have roles in the regulation of the vascular, renal, gastrointestinal and female reproductive systems. Despite their vital role in physiology, eicosanoids are often associated with disease, including inflammatory disease and cancer. Inhibitors have been developed that interfere with the synthesis or action of various eicosanoids and some of these are used in disease treatment, especially for inflammation.
423–441
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Calder, Philip (2020) Eicosanoids. Essays in Biochemistry, 64 (3), 423–441. (doi:10.1042/EBC20190083).

Record type: Article

Abstract

This article describes the pathways of eicosanoid synthesis, eicosanoid receptors, the action of eicosanoids in different physiological systems, the roles of eicosanoids in selected diseases, and the major inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis and action. Eicosanoids are oxidised derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) formed by the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (cytP450) pathways. Arachidonic acid (ARA) is the usual substrate for eicosanoid synthesis. The COX pathways form prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs), the LOX pathways form leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs), and the cytP450 pathways form various epoxy, hydroxy and dihydroxy derivatives. Eicosanoids are highly bioactive acting on many cell types through cell membrane G-protein coupled receptors, although some eicosanoids are also ligands for nuclear receptors. Because they are rapidly catabolised, eicosanoids mainly act locally to the site of their production. Many eicosanoids have multiple, sometimes pleiotropic, effects on inflammation and immunity. The most widely studied is PGE2. Many eicosanoids have roles in the regulation of the vascular, renal, gastrointestinal and female reproductive systems. Despite their vital role in physiology, eicosanoids are often associated with disease, including inflammatory disease and cancer. Inhibitors have been developed that interfere with the synthesis or action of various eicosanoids and some of these are used in disease treatment, especially for inflammation.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 30 July 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 18 August 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 443186
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/443186
PURE UUID: 0970d257-703b-4ba8-abc0-adcc29b79207
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 13 Aug 2020 16:38
Last modified: 22 Nov 2021 08:13

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