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Biotope and biocenosis of cryoconite hole ecosystems on Ecology Glacier in the maritime Antarctic

Biotope and biocenosis of cryoconite hole ecosystems on Ecology Glacier in the maritime Antarctic
Biotope and biocenosis of cryoconite hole ecosystems on Ecology Glacier in the maritime Antarctic
Despite recent great interest in glacier ecosystems in the continental Antarctic, little is known about their maritime counterparts. Our study presents descriptive data on cryoconite sediments and cryoconite holes on Ecology Glacier (King George Island) to accomplish three main objectives: (a) to identify main eukaryotic (algae, invertebrates) and prokaryotic (cyanobacteria) components of microbial communities; (b) to provide a “baseline” of community composition, organic matter and artificial contamination; and (c) to identify key abiotic factors that might be important in community assembly. Cryoconite holes were sampled along an altitudinal gradient of Ecology Glacier in January, mid Austral Summer 2017. Cryoconite holes located in lower altitude were deeper than those located in the middle and the highest altitude. Seventeen species of algae and cyanobacteria with biomass of 0.79 to 5.37 μg/cm3 have been found in sediments. Dominant species were cyanobacterial Pseudanabaena frigida and Bacillariophyceae Microcostaus sp. Biomass of Bacillariophyceae was significantly higher than that of Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. We found three species of rotifers (potentially two new to science) and for the first time a glacier dwelling Acari (suspension feeder, Nanorchestes nivalis). Organic matter content ranged from 5.4% to 7.6%. Investigated artificial radionuclides included 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. 210Pb seems to be related to organic matter content. Overall, cryoconite holes on Ecology Glacier present unique habitats that serve as biodiversity hotspots of psychrophiles, source of organic matter, matrices for radioactivity tracking and model for observing changes in supraglacial ecosystems in the maritime Antarctic.
Acari and freshwater Rotifera, Algae, Antarctic cryoconite, Biodiversity, Contamination of polar regions, Glacial ecosystems, Microbial communities
0048-9697
Buda, Jakub
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Łokas, Edyta
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Pietryka, Mirosława
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Richter, Dorota
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Magowski, Wojciech
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Iakovenko, Nataliia S.
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Porazinska, Dorota L.
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Budzik, Tomasz
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Grabiec, Mariusz
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Grzesiak, Jakub
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Klimaszyk, Piotr
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Gaca, Paweł
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Zawierucha, Krzysztof
07797f26-cff9-4eb3-93fc-c05672dc7972
Buda, Jakub
311de44b-3355-4b45-99c0-37d1cf652240
Łokas, Edyta
029668d2-9da2-4aab-afe1-93df8c2e3943
Pietryka, Mirosława
f9bc5200-ec07-4054-9d02-9c333e7c5ad1
Richter, Dorota
dad4fac4-9cf5-477d-a790-b4b3173fca5e
Magowski, Wojciech
e240e06e-2ae6-4297-b6b1-4f9a45496205
Iakovenko, Nataliia S.
d7934981-3aa0-4cbf-8f9e-2a0574c749a5
Porazinska, Dorota L.
66c32bd7-053c-49ac-97bb-8eb718d90356
Budzik, Tomasz
39602bdc-e450-4516-9d45-07b144c67a71
Grabiec, Mariusz
85dae419-7016-4255-86dd-878826ab487b
Grzesiak, Jakub
41de0602-a636-4aa8-b539-370193f45e7b
Klimaszyk, Piotr
bcf842da-f2ed-4336-936c-c51628ffb650
Gaca, Paweł
3d23473d-db81-436a-a12d-ad707db4abc8
Zawierucha, Krzysztof
07797f26-cff9-4eb3-93fc-c05672dc7972

Buda, Jakub, Łokas, Edyta, Pietryka, Mirosława, Richter, Dorota, Magowski, Wojciech, Iakovenko, Nataliia S., Porazinska, Dorota L., Budzik, Tomasz, Grabiec, Mariusz, Grzesiak, Jakub, Klimaszyk, Piotr, Gaca, Paweł and Zawierucha, Krzysztof (2020) Biotope and biocenosis of cryoconite hole ecosystems on Ecology Glacier in the maritime Antarctic. Science of the Total Environment, 724, [138112]. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138112).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Despite recent great interest in glacier ecosystems in the continental Antarctic, little is known about their maritime counterparts. Our study presents descriptive data on cryoconite sediments and cryoconite holes on Ecology Glacier (King George Island) to accomplish three main objectives: (a) to identify main eukaryotic (algae, invertebrates) and prokaryotic (cyanobacteria) components of microbial communities; (b) to provide a “baseline” of community composition, organic matter and artificial contamination; and (c) to identify key abiotic factors that might be important in community assembly. Cryoconite holes were sampled along an altitudinal gradient of Ecology Glacier in January, mid Austral Summer 2017. Cryoconite holes located in lower altitude were deeper than those located in the middle and the highest altitude. Seventeen species of algae and cyanobacteria with biomass of 0.79 to 5.37 μg/cm3 have been found in sediments. Dominant species were cyanobacterial Pseudanabaena frigida and Bacillariophyceae Microcostaus sp. Biomass of Bacillariophyceae was significantly higher than that of Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. We found three species of rotifers (potentially two new to science) and for the first time a glacier dwelling Acari (suspension feeder, Nanorchestes nivalis). Organic matter content ranged from 5.4% to 7.6%. Investigated artificial radionuclides included 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. 210Pb seems to be related to organic matter content. Overall, cryoconite holes on Ecology Glacier present unique habitats that serve as biodiversity hotspots of psychrophiles, source of organic matter, matrices for radioactivity tracking and model for observing changes in supraglacial ecosystems in the maritime Antarctic.

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Accepted/In Press date: 20 March 2020
Published date: 1 July 2020
Keywords: Acari and freshwater Rotifera, Algae, Antarctic cryoconite, Biodiversity, Contamination of polar regions, Glacial ecosystems, Microbial communities

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 444425
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/444425
ISSN: 0048-9697
PURE UUID: 835d7f17-235c-45c3-937a-5054d0a7946b

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Date deposited: 19 Oct 2020 16:31
Last modified: 25 Nov 2021 22:22

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Contributors

Author: Jakub Buda
Author: Edyta Łokas
Author: Mirosława Pietryka
Author: Dorota Richter
Author: Wojciech Magowski
Author: Nataliia S. Iakovenko
Author: Dorota L. Porazinska
Author: Tomasz Budzik
Author: Mariusz Grabiec
Author: Jakub Grzesiak
Author: Piotr Klimaszyk
Author: Paweł Gaca
Author: Krzysztof Zawierucha

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