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The effects of different smoking patterns in pregnancy on perinatal outcomes in the Southampton Women’s Survey

The effects of different smoking patterns in pregnancy on perinatal outcomes in the Southampton Women’s Survey
The effects of different smoking patterns in pregnancy on perinatal outcomes in the Southampton Women’s Survey
Maternal smoking during pregnancy has established associations with poor perinatal outcomes. Among continuing pregnant smokers, harm-reduction strategies have been suggested, including temporary cessation of smoking during pregnancy, also known as partial quitting. Support for this strategy, however, remains limited. Six hundred and ninety-seven women in the Southampton Women’s Survey who smoked at their last menstrual period were categorised into sustained quitters, partial quitters (quit in either the first or third trimester but not both) or sustained smokers (continued to smoke throughout pregnancy). In regression models, compared with infants born to sustained smokers, infants born to sustained quitters and partial quitters were heavier at birth by β = 0.64 standard deviations (SD) (WHO z-score) (95% CI: 0.47–0.80) and 0.48 SD (WHO z-score) (95% CI: 0.24–0.72) respectively, adjusted for confounders, with similar patterns seen for other anthropometric measures (head circumference and crown–heel length). Sustained quitters had longer gestations by β = 3.5 days (95% CI: 1.8–5.2) compared with sustained smokers, but no difference was seen for partial quitters. While sustained quitting remains the most desired outcome for pregnant smokers, partial quitting should be explored as a strategy to reduce some of the harmful effects of smoking on offspring in those who cannot achieve sustained quitting.
Anthropometry, Birthweight, Crown–heel length, Gestation, Head circumference, Partial quitting, Perinatal outcomes, Pregnancy, Smoking
1660-4601
7991
O'Donnell, Martin
90e5aa17-f202-4bcc-ab34-cb68428710e9
Baird, Janis
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824
Cooper, Cyrus
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Crozier, Sarah
9c3595ce-45b0-44fa-8c4c-4c555e628a03
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Geary, Michael
76355138-6e5f-43a1-b180-b33e93916df8
Inskip, Hazel
5fb4470a-9379-49b2-a533-9da8e61058b7
Hayes, Catherine B.
dbe12cb7-7c77-44e9-98e1-a3c1301c660c
O'Donnell, Martin
90e5aa17-f202-4bcc-ab34-cb68428710e9
Baird, Janis
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824
Cooper, Cyrus
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Crozier, Sarah
9c3595ce-45b0-44fa-8c4c-4c555e628a03
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Geary, Michael
76355138-6e5f-43a1-b180-b33e93916df8
Inskip, Hazel
5fb4470a-9379-49b2-a533-9da8e61058b7
Hayes, Catherine B.
dbe12cb7-7c77-44e9-98e1-a3c1301c660c

O'Donnell, Martin, Baird, Janis, Cooper, Cyrus, Crozier, Sarah, Godfrey, Keith, Geary, Michael, Inskip, Hazel and Hayes, Catherine B. (2020) The effects of different smoking patterns in pregnancy on perinatal outcomes in the Southampton Women’s Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (21), 7991, [7991]. (doi:10.3390/ijerph17217991).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Maternal smoking during pregnancy has established associations with poor perinatal outcomes. Among continuing pregnant smokers, harm-reduction strategies have been suggested, including temporary cessation of smoking during pregnancy, also known as partial quitting. Support for this strategy, however, remains limited. Six hundred and ninety-seven women in the Southampton Women’s Survey who smoked at their last menstrual period were categorised into sustained quitters, partial quitters (quit in either the first or third trimester but not both) or sustained smokers (continued to smoke throughout pregnancy). In regression models, compared with infants born to sustained smokers, infants born to sustained quitters and partial quitters were heavier at birth by β = 0.64 standard deviations (SD) (WHO z-score) (95% CI: 0.47–0.80) and 0.48 SD (WHO z-score) (95% CI: 0.24–0.72) respectively, adjusted for confounders, with similar patterns seen for other anthropometric measures (head circumference and crown–heel length). Sustained quitters had longer gestations by β = 3.5 days (95% CI: 1.8–5.2) compared with sustained smokers, but no difference was seen for partial quitters. While sustained quitting remains the most desired outcome for pregnant smokers, partial quitting should be explored as a strategy to reduce some of the harmful effects of smoking on offspring in those who cannot achieve sustained quitting.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 21 October 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 30 October 2020
Keywords: Anthropometry, Birthweight, Crown–heel length, Gestation, Head circumference, Partial quitting, Perinatal outcomes, Pregnancy, Smoking

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 444938
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/444938
ISSN: 1660-4601
PURE UUID: 892591dd-7980-4b1a-a135-ace904862717
ORCID for Janis Baird: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4039-4361
ORCID for Cyrus Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709
ORCID for Sarah Crozier: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9524-1127
ORCID for Keith Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618
ORCID for Hazel Inskip: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8897-1749

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 Nov 2020 17:32
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:46

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Contributors

Author: Martin O'Donnell
Author: Janis Baird ORCID iD
Author: Cyrus Cooper ORCID iD
Author: Sarah Crozier ORCID iD
Author: Keith Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: Michael Geary
Author: Hazel Inskip ORCID iD
Author: Catherine B. Hayes

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