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Development of a short food frequency questionnaire to assess diet quality in UK Adolescents using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey

Development of a short food frequency questionnaire to assess diet quality in UK Adolescents using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey
Development of a short food frequency questionnaire to assess diet quality in UK Adolescents using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey
Background: UK adolescents consume fewer fruits and vegetables and more free sugars than any other age group. Established techniques to understand diet quality can be difficult to use with adolescents because of high participant burden. This study aimed to identify key foods that indicate variation in diet quality in UK adolescents for inclusion in a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to investigate the associations between adolescent diet quality, nutritional biomarkers and socio-demographic factors.

Methods: dietary, demographic and biomarker data from waves 1-8 of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme were used (n=2587; aged 11-18 years; 50% boys; n=≤997 biomarker data). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 139 food groups to identify the key patterns within the data. Two diet quality scores, a 139-group and 20-group, were calculated using the PCA coefficients for each food group and multiplying by their standardised reported frequency of consumption and then summing across foods. The foods with the 10 strongest positive and 10 strongest negative coefficients from the PCA results were used for the 20-group score. Scores were standardised to have a zero mean and standard deviation of one.

Results: the first PCA component explained 3.0% of variance in the dietary data and described a dietary pattern broadly aligned with UK dietary recommendations. A correlation of 0.87 was observed between the 139-group and 20-group scores. Bland-Altman mean difference was 0.00 and 95% limits of agreement were -0.98 to 0.98 SDs. Correlations, in the expected direction, were seen between each nutritional biomarker and both scores; results attenuated slightly for the 20-group score compared to the 139-group score. Better diet quality was observed among girls, non-white populations and in those from higher socio-economic backgrounds for both scores.

Conclusions: the diet quality score based on 20 food groups showed reasonable agreement with the 139-group score. Both scores were correlated with nutritional biomarkers. A short 20-item FFQ can provide a meaningful and easy-to-implement tool to assess diet quality in large scale observational and intervention studies with adolescents.
1475-2891
Shaw, Sarah
9629b12a-8ee2-4483-a9ca-6efb4eef74c8
Crozier, Sarah
9c3595ce-45b0-44fa-8c4c-4c555e628a03
Strommer, Sofia
a025047e-effa-4481-9bf4-48da1668649e
Inskip, Hazel
5fb4470a-9379-49b2-a533-9da8e61058b7
Barker, Mary
374310ad-d308-44af-b6da-515bf5d2d6d2
Vogel, Christina
768f1dcd-2697-4aae-95cc-ee2f6d63dff5
EACH-B Study Team
Shaw, Sarah
9629b12a-8ee2-4483-a9ca-6efb4eef74c8
Crozier, Sarah
9c3595ce-45b0-44fa-8c4c-4c555e628a03
Strommer, Sofia
a025047e-effa-4481-9bf4-48da1668649e
Inskip, Hazel
5fb4470a-9379-49b2-a533-9da8e61058b7
Barker, Mary
374310ad-d308-44af-b6da-515bf5d2d6d2
Vogel, Christina
768f1dcd-2697-4aae-95cc-ee2f6d63dff5

EACH-B Study Team (2020) Development of a short food frequency questionnaire to assess diet quality in UK Adolescents using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Nutrition Journal. (In Press)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: UK adolescents consume fewer fruits and vegetables and more free sugars than any other age group. Established techniques to understand diet quality can be difficult to use with adolescents because of high participant burden. This study aimed to identify key foods that indicate variation in diet quality in UK adolescents for inclusion in a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to investigate the associations between adolescent diet quality, nutritional biomarkers and socio-demographic factors.

Methods: dietary, demographic and biomarker data from waves 1-8 of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme were used (n=2587; aged 11-18 years; 50% boys; n=≤997 biomarker data). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 139 food groups to identify the key patterns within the data. Two diet quality scores, a 139-group and 20-group, were calculated using the PCA coefficients for each food group and multiplying by their standardised reported frequency of consumption and then summing across foods. The foods with the 10 strongest positive and 10 strongest negative coefficients from the PCA results were used for the 20-group score. Scores were standardised to have a zero mean and standard deviation of one.

Results: the first PCA component explained 3.0% of variance in the dietary data and described a dietary pattern broadly aligned with UK dietary recommendations. A correlation of 0.87 was observed between the 139-group and 20-group scores. Bland-Altman mean difference was 0.00 and 95% limits of agreement were -0.98 to 0.98 SDs. Correlations, in the expected direction, were seen between each nutritional biomarker and both scores; results attenuated slightly for the 20-group score compared to the 139-group score. Better diet quality was observed among girls, non-white populations and in those from higher socio-economic backgrounds for both scores.

Conclusions: the diet quality score based on 20 food groups showed reasonable agreement with the 139-group score. Both scores were correlated with nutritional biomarkers. A short 20-item FFQ can provide a meaningful and easy-to-implement tool to assess diet quality in large scale observational and intervention studies with adolescents.

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Shaw_Adolescent_NDNSFFQ_Version for PURE 111220 - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 11 December 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 445760
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/445760
ISSN: 1475-2891
PURE UUID: d74ae593-7694-49f1-aea9-9c35289925cb
ORCID for Sarah Shaw: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2206-6858
ORCID for Sarah Crozier: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9524-1127
ORCID for Hazel Inskip: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8897-1749
ORCID for Mary Barker: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2976-0217
ORCID for Christina Vogel: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3897-3786

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 07 Jan 2021 17:32
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 17:23

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Contributors

Author: Sarah Shaw ORCID iD
Author: Sarah Crozier ORCID iD
Author: Sofia Strommer
Author: Hazel Inskip ORCID iD
Author: Mary Barker ORCID iD
Author: Christina Vogel ORCID iD
Corporate Author: EACH-B Study Team

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