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Relationships between age, frailty, length of care home residence and biomarkers of immunity and inflammation in older care home residents in the UK

Relationships between age, frailty, length of care home residence and biomarkers of immunity and inflammation in older care home residents in the UK
Relationships between age, frailty, length of care home residence and biomarkers of immunity and inflammation in older care home residents in the UK
Ageing entails changes to the immune system, collectively termed immunosenescence and inflammageing. The relationships among age, frailty and immune parameters in older people resident in care homes deserves better exploration. We assessed immune and inflammatory parameters in UK care home residents aged over 65 yr and how they relate to age, frailty index and length of care home residence. Linear regression was used to identify the independent contribution of age, frailty and length of care home residence to the various immune parameters as dependent variables. Participants had a mean age (+ SD) of 85.3 ± 7.5 yr, had been residing in the care home for a mean (+ SD) of 1.9 ± 2.2 yr at the time of study commencement, 33.2% were severely frail. Length of care home residence and frailty index were correlated, age and frailty index, and age and length of care home residence were not significantly correlated. All components of the full blood count, apart from total lymphocytes, were within the reference range; 31% of participants had blood lymphocyte numbers below the lower value of the reference range. Among the components of the full blood count, platelet numbers were positively associated with frailty index. Amongst plasma inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), soluble E-selectin and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) were positively associated with frailty. Plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), IP-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRII) were positively associated with age. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was positively associated with length of care home residence. Frailty was an independent predictor of platelet numbers, plasma CRP, IL-1ra, IP-10 and sE-selectin. Age was an independent predictor of activated monocytes and plasma IP-10, TNFRII and sVCAM-1. Length of care home residence was an independent predictor of plasma MCP-1. This study concludes that there are independent links between increased frailty and inflammation and between increased age and inflammation amongst older people resident in care homes in the UK. Since inflammation is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality in older people, causes and consequences of inflammation in this population should be further explored.
Castro Herrera, Vivian Maritza
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Lown, Mark
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Fisk, Helena Lucy
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Owen-Jones, Eleri
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Lau, Mandy
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Lowe, Rachel
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Hood, Kerenza
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Gillespie, David
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Hobbs, Richard
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Little, Paul
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Butler, Christopher C.
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Miles, Elizabeth
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Calder, Philip
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Castro Herrera, Vivian Maritza
ee06e5c1-815f-497f-9c67-47ead3772704
Lown, Mark
4742d5f8-bcf3-4e0b-811c-920e7d010c9b
Fisk, Helena Lucy
38c7f1f0-5dfc-4f71-aa0f-ec4f0e5839f3
Owen-Jones, Eleri
c30ceef4-12ac-4716-b405-5e2b34a91022
Lau, Mandy
1b69a0c5-4b7b-4bec-a193-dd0140e9bd89
Lowe, Rachel
276dd3d7-42ae-4696-9835-7d3bd442518c
Hood, Kerenza
16ff8724-0037-41db-9d84-2cc054e310f4
Gillespie, David
20e85009-d91d-45bd-a6a7-47e7c6ba0af5
Hobbs, Richard
1f17eefd-04d2-48be-a974-6ad94e9f5480
Little, Paul
1bf2d1f7-200c-47a5-ab16-fe5a8756a777
Butler, Christopher C.
f4b54dbe-4212-47d4-9c06-bfdf59aac428
Miles, Elizabeth
20332899-ecdb-4214-95bc-922dde36d416
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Castro Herrera, Vivian Maritza, Lown, Mark, Fisk, Helena Lucy, Owen-Jones, Eleri, Lau, Mandy, Lowe, Rachel, Hood, Kerenza, Gillespie, David, Hobbs, Richard, Little, Paul, Butler, Christopher C., Miles, Elizabeth and Calder, Philip (2021) Relationships between age, frailty, length of care home residence and biomarkers of immunity and inflammation in older care home residents in the UK. Frontiers in Ageing. (doi:10.3389/fragi.2021.599084). (In Press)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Ageing entails changes to the immune system, collectively termed immunosenescence and inflammageing. The relationships among age, frailty and immune parameters in older people resident in care homes deserves better exploration. We assessed immune and inflammatory parameters in UK care home residents aged over 65 yr and how they relate to age, frailty index and length of care home residence. Linear regression was used to identify the independent contribution of age, frailty and length of care home residence to the various immune parameters as dependent variables. Participants had a mean age (+ SD) of 85.3 ± 7.5 yr, had been residing in the care home for a mean (+ SD) of 1.9 ± 2.2 yr at the time of study commencement, 33.2% were severely frail. Length of care home residence and frailty index were correlated, age and frailty index, and age and length of care home residence were not significantly correlated. All components of the full blood count, apart from total lymphocytes, were within the reference range; 31% of participants had blood lymphocyte numbers below the lower value of the reference range. Among the components of the full blood count, platelet numbers were positively associated with frailty index. Amongst plasma inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), soluble E-selectin and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) were positively associated with frailty. Plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), IP-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRII) were positively associated with age. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was positively associated with length of care home residence. Frailty was an independent predictor of platelet numbers, plasma CRP, IL-1ra, IP-10 and sE-selectin. Age was an independent predictor of activated monocytes and plasma IP-10, TNFRII and sVCAM-1. Length of care home residence was an independent predictor of plasma MCP-1. This study concludes that there are independent links between increased frailty and inflammation and between increased age and inflammation amongst older people resident in care homes in the UK. Since inflammation is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality in older people, causes and consequences of inflammation in this population should be further explored.

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Accepted/In Press date: 3 February 2021

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 446936
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/446936
PURE UUID: 0e802cfe-ce50-43ec-bfb4-da6d2618fe03
ORCID for Mark Lown: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8309-568X
ORCID for Elizabeth Miles: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8643-0655
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 26 Feb 2021 17:32
Last modified: 13 Dec 2021 06:30

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Contributors

Author: Vivian Maritza Castro Herrera
Author: Mark Lown ORCID iD
Author: Helena Lucy Fisk
Author: Eleri Owen-Jones
Author: Mandy Lau
Author: Rachel Lowe
Author: Kerenza Hood
Author: David Gillespie
Author: Richard Hobbs
Author: Paul Little
Author: Christopher C. Butler
Author: Elizabeth Miles ORCID iD
Author: Philip Calder ORCID iD

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