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Food insecurity, diet quality and body composition: data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) pilot survey in urban Soweto, South Africa

Food insecurity, diet quality and body composition: data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) pilot survey in urban Soweto, South Africa
Food insecurity, diet quality and body composition: data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) pilot survey in urban Soweto, South Africa

Objective: To determine whether food security, diet diversity and diet quality are associated with anthropometric measurements and body composition among women of reproductive age. The association between food security and anaemia prevalence was also tested. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) study. Food security and dietary data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Hb levels were measured using a HemoCue, and anaemia was classified as an altitude-adjusted haemoglobin level < 12·5 g/dl. Body size and composition were assessed using anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Setting: The urban township of Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants: Non-pregnant women aged 18-25 years (n 1534). Results: Almost half of the women were overweight or obese (44 %), and 9 % were underweight. Almost a third of women were anaemic (30 %). The prevalence rates of anaemia and food insecurity were similar across BMI categories. Food insecure women had the least diverse diets, and food security was negatively associated with diet quality (food security category v. diet quality score: B = -0·35, 95 % CI -0·70, -0·01, P = 0·049). Significant univariate associations were observed between food security and total lean mass. However, there were no associations between food security and body size or composition variables in multivariate models. Conclusions: Our data indicate that food security is an important determinant of diet quality in this urban-poor, highly transitioned setting. Interventions to improve maternal and child nutrition should recognise both food security and the food environment as critical elements within their developmental phases.

Body composition, Body size, Diet diversity, Diet quality, Food security
1368-9800
1629-1637
Kehoe, Sarah H.
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Wrottesley, Stephanie V.
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Ware, Lisa
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Prioreschi, Alessandra
04875305-6e91-4199-98bb-8154707060c4
Draper, Catherine E.
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Ward, Kate
39bd4db1-c948-4e32-930e-7bec8deb54c7
Lye, Stephen
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Norris, Shane A.
1fb5024e-51d0-438b-8af3-77ac28844f9e
Kehoe, Sarah H.
534e5729-632b-4b4f-8401-164d8c20aa26
Wrottesley, Stephanie V.
9c93c674-7f64-413d-b05e-f1c5db19c31a
Ware, Lisa
a56cf9e3-a3af-4df0-9b1f-4782aeda1384
Prioreschi, Alessandra
04875305-6e91-4199-98bb-8154707060c4
Draper, Catherine E.
5032d1f5-0c2a-44be-8bdb-6e4967d49e14
Ward, Kate
39bd4db1-c948-4e32-930e-7bec8deb54c7
Lye, Stephen
7bd9fd30-9358-42fb-a3f3-96de294d1dca
Norris, Shane A.
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Kehoe, Sarah H., Wrottesley, Stephanie V., Ware, Lisa, Prioreschi, Alessandra, Draper, Catherine E., Ward, Kate, Lye, Stephen and Norris, Shane A. (2021) Food insecurity, diet quality and body composition: data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) pilot survey in urban Soweto, South Africa. Public Health Nutrition, 24 (7), 1629-1637. (doi:10.1017/S136898002100046X).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Objective: To determine whether food security, diet diversity and diet quality are associated with anthropometric measurements and body composition among women of reproductive age. The association between food security and anaemia prevalence was also tested. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) study. Food security and dietary data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Hb levels were measured using a HemoCue, and anaemia was classified as an altitude-adjusted haemoglobin level < 12·5 g/dl. Body size and composition were assessed using anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Setting: The urban township of Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants: Non-pregnant women aged 18-25 years (n 1534). Results: Almost half of the women were overweight or obese (44 %), and 9 % were underweight. Almost a third of women were anaemic (30 %). The prevalence rates of anaemia and food insecurity were similar across BMI categories. Food insecure women had the least diverse diets, and food security was negatively associated with diet quality (food security category v. diet quality score: B = -0·35, 95 % CI -0·70, -0·01, P = 0·049). Significant univariate associations were observed between food security and total lean mass. However, there were no associations between food security and body size or composition variables in multivariate models. Conclusions: Our data indicate that food security is an important determinant of diet quality in this urban-poor, highly transitioned setting. Interventions to improve maternal and child nutrition should recognise both food security and the food environment as critical elements within their developmental phases.

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Kehoe Wrottesley INPreP WP5 manuscript FINAL submitted to PHN - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 27 January 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 26 February 2021
Keywords: Body composition, Body size, Diet diversity, Diet quality, Food security

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 448990
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/448990
ISSN: 1368-9800
PURE UUID: c27bb5a2-17f8-4048-98be-c12b89433019
ORCID for Sarah H. Kehoe: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2584-7999
ORCID for Kate Ward: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7034-6750

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 May 2021 16:49
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 03:05

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Contributors

Author: Sarah H. Kehoe ORCID iD
Author: Stephanie V. Wrottesley
Author: Lisa Ware
Author: Alessandra Prioreschi
Author: Catherine E. Draper
Author: Kate Ward ORCID iD
Author: Stephen Lye
Author: Shane A. Norris

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