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Enriching social media data allows a more robust representation of cultural ecosystem services

Enriching social media data allows a more robust representation of cultural ecosystem services
Enriching social media data allows a more robust representation of cultural ecosystem services

Images and textual metadata from social media sites such as Flickr have been used to understand the drivers and distributions of cultural ecosystem services (CES). However, using all available data from social media sites may not provide an accurate representation of individual services. For example, an image of nature might be described negatively in the image's description. Here, we present a novel approach to refining social media data to represent CES better, including filtering by keywords, photograph content and enriching the data by including a measure of the sentiment expressed in the textual metadata. We demonstrate that the distribution of an enriched dataset of Flickr images representing hiking in the USA can contribute to different results and conclusions than the full dataset. Furthermore, we classified the contents of these hiking images and, using latent semantic analysis, clustered the images into ten groups based on the similarity of their content. The groups provide rich information, such as the importance of geodiversity and biodiversity in supporting a positive hiking experience. The application of this method can help to enrich social media data for CES studies, allowing researchers to further untangle the complex socio-ecological interactions that drive CES distributions, benefits and values.

Cultural ecosystem services, Flickr, Geosystem services, Hiking, Social media
2212-0416
Fox, Nathan
e21f7493-4f13-4950-b011-91a16d56bb13
Graham, Laura
bc76bad7-f0fd-4e94-acf9-c7450ec36ae2
Eigenbrod, Felix
43efc6ae-b129-45a2-8a34-e489b5f05827
Bullock, J.M.
1905d5ee-f9cd-4752-b0aa-5ae5662b35e9
Parks, Katherine
ea8fc33d-e41f-4df1-9c16-01c1711de5a6
Fox, Nathan
e21f7493-4f13-4950-b011-91a16d56bb13
Graham, Laura
bc76bad7-f0fd-4e94-acf9-c7450ec36ae2
Eigenbrod, Felix
43efc6ae-b129-45a2-8a34-e489b5f05827
Bullock, J.M.
1905d5ee-f9cd-4752-b0aa-5ae5662b35e9
Parks, Katherine
ea8fc33d-e41f-4df1-9c16-01c1711de5a6

Fox, Nathan, Graham, Laura, Eigenbrod, Felix, Bullock, J.M. and Parks, Katherine (2021) Enriching social media data allows a more robust representation of cultural ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services, 50, [101328]. (doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2021.101328).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Images and textual metadata from social media sites such as Flickr have been used to understand the drivers and distributions of cultural ecosystem services (CES). However, using all available data from social media sites may not provide an accurate representation of individual services. For example, an image of nature might be described negatively in the image's description. Here, we present a novel approach to refining social media data to represent CES better, including filtering by keywords, photograph content and enriching the data by including a measure of the sentiment expressed in the textual metadata. We demonstrate that the distribution of an enriched dataset of Flickr images representing hiking in the USA can contribute to different results and conclusions than the full dataset. Furthermore, we classified the contents of these hiking images and, using latent semantic analysis, clustered the images into ten groups based on the similarity of their content. The groups provide rich information, such as the importance of geodiversity and biodiversity in supporting a positive hiking experience. The application of this method can help to enrich social media data for CES studies, allowing researchers to further untangle the complex socio-ecological interactions that drive CES distributions, benefits and values.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 16 June 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 6 July 2021
Published date: 1 August 2021
Keywords: Cultural ecosystem services, Flickr, Geosystem services, Hiking, Social media

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 450766
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/450766
ISSN: 2212-0416
PURE UUID: 3f93efda-2771-4847-9b7e-156ecff623b0
ORCID for Felix Eigenbrod: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8982-824X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 10 Aug 2021 16:32
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:56

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Contributors

Author: Nathan Fox
Author: Laura Graham
Author: Felix Eigenbrod ORCID iD
Author: J.M. Bullock
Author: Katherine Parks

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