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Experimental characterization of fault-tolerant circuits in small-scale quantum processors

Experimental characterization of fault-tolerant circuits in small-scale quantum processors
Experimental characterization of fault-tolerant circuits in small-scale quantum processors
Experiments conducted on open-access cloud-based IBM Quantum devices are presented for characterizing their fault tolerance using $[4,2,2]$-encoded gate sequences. Up to 100 logical gates are activated in the "IBMQ Bogota" and "IBMQ Santiago" devices and we found that a [4,2,2] code's logical gate set may be deemed fault-tolerant for gate sequences larger than 10 gates. However, certain circuits did not satisfy the fault tolerance criterion. In some cases the encoded-gate sequences show a high error rate that is lower bounded at approximately 0.1, whereby the error inherent in these circuits cannot be mitigated by classical post-selection. A comparison of the experimental results to a simple error model reveal that the dominant gate errors cannot be readily represented by the popular Pauli error model. Finally, it is most accurate to assess the fault tolerance criterion when the circuits tested are restricted to those that give rise to an output state with a low dimension.
Quantum error correction codes, encoded gates, fault tolerant circuit, ibm quantum, quantum circuits, quantum gates
2169-3536
162996-163011
Cane, Rosie
be46330d-a587-428e-b0e6-605010c4f694
Chandra, Daryus
d629163f-25d0-42fd-a912-b35cd93e8334
Ng, Soon Xin
e19a63b0-0f12-4591-ab5f-554820d5f78c
Hanzo, Lajos
66e7266f-3066-4fc0-8391-e000acce71a1
Cane, Rosie
be46330d-a587-428e-b0e6-605010c4f694
Chandra, Daryus
d629163f-25d0-42fd-a912-b35cd93e8334
Ng, Soon Xin
e19a63b0-0f12-4591-ab5f-554820d5f78c
Hanzo, Lajos
66e7266f-3066-4fc0-8391-e000acce71a1

Cane, Rosie, Chandra, Daryus, Ng, Soon Xin and Hanzo, Lajos (2021) Experimental characterization of fault-tolerant circuits in small-scale quantum processors. IEEE Access, 9, 162996-163011. (doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3133483).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Experiments conducted on open-access cloud-based IBM Quantum devices are presented for characterizing their fault tolerance using $[4,2,2]$-encoded gate sequences. Up to 100 logical gates are activated in the "IBMQ Bogota" and "IBMQ Santiago" devices and we found that a [4,2,2] code's logical gate set may be deemed fault-tolerant for gate sequences larger than 10 gates. However, certain circuits did not satisfy the fault tolerance criterion. In some cases the encoded-gate sequences show a high error rate that is lower bounded at approximately 0.1, whereby the error inherent in these circuits cannot be mitigated by classical post-selection. A comparison of the experimental results to a simple error model reveal that the dominant gate errors cannot be readily represented by the popular Pauli error model. Finally, it is most accurate to assess the fault tolerance criterion when the circuits tested are restricted to those that give rise to an output state with a low dimension.

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Experimental Characterization of Fault-Tolerant Circuits in Small-Scale Quantum Processors - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 5 December 2021
Published date: 6 December 2021
Keywords: Quantum error correction codes, encoded gates, fault tolerant circuit, ibm quantum, quantum circuits, quantum gates

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 453228
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/453228
ISSN: 2169-3536
PURE UUID: e3c337ab-95bb-4e56-8bb9-f5648227e24e
ORCID for Daryus Chandra: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2406-7229
ORCID for Soon Xin Ng: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0930-7194
ORCID for Lajos Hanzo: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2636-5214

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 11 Jan 2022 17:40
Last modified: 28 Apr 2022 02:32

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Contributors

Author: Rosie Cane
Author: Daryus Chandra ORCID iD
Author: Soon Xin Ng ORCID iD
Author: Lajos Hanzo ORCID iD

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