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Default mode network connectivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence: Associations with delay aversion and temporal discounting, but not mind wandering

Default mode network connectivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence: Associations with delay aversion and temporal discounting, but not mind wandering
Default mode network connectivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence: Associations with delay aversion and temporal discounting, but not mind wandering

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with reduced resting state connectivity in the core subsystem of the default mode network (DMN; medial prefrontal cortex – posterior cingulate cortex). However, the neuropsychological consequences of this hypoconnectivity remain to be determined. Building on recent theoretical models of DMN function, we tested the association between DMN hypo-connectivity and three neuropsychological processes previously implicated in ADHD: (i) excessive task-unrelated spontaneous thought (i.e., mind-wandering); (ii) sub-optimal decision-making due to exaggerated temporal discounting; and (iii) delay aversion – a heightened emotional response to the imposition or experience of delay. Methods: Twenty male adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD and 18 typically developing adolescents (all aged 11–16 years) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan to assess DMN connectivity. An experimental paradigm was used to assess temporal discounting and self-report questionnaires were used to measure mind wandering and delay aversion. Results: ADHD was significantly associated with DMN hypo-connectivity specifically in the core subsystem, elevated levels of mind-wandering, delay aversion, and temporal discounting. Mediation analysis suggested that DMN hypoconnectivity mediated the link between ADHD and delay aversion. Conclusion: The results provide initial evidence that disturbances in the DMN may impair ability to regulate delay-related negative affect in adolescents with ADHD.

ADHD, Default mode network, Delay aversion, Mind-wandering, Temporal discounting, fMRI
0167-8760
38-44
Broulidakis, John
b5be99c1-a520-4d03-90c7-be3ad3d5486a
Golm, Dennis
ae337f61-561e-4d44-9cf3-3e5611c7b484
Cortese, Samuele
53d4bf2c-4e0e-4c77-9385-218350560fdb
Fairchild, Graeme
32b6628e-6588-464f-8948-86e02eadb364
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
10152072-8cdc-4bd9-ab17-232d20fdf3ed
Broulidakis, John
b5be99c1-a520-4d03-90c7-be3ad3d5486a
Golm, Dennis
ae337f61-561e-4d44-9cf3-3e5611c7b484
Cortese, Samuele
53d4bf2c-4e0e-4c77-9385-218350560fdb
Fairchild, Graeme
32b6628e-6588-464f-8948-86e02eadb364
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
10152072-8cdc-4bd9-ab17-232d20fdf3ed

Broulidakis, John, Golm, Dennis, Cortese, Samuele, Fairchild, Graeme and Sonuga-Barke, Edmund (2022) Default mode network connectivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence: Associations with delay aversion and temporal discounting, but not mind wandering. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 173, 38-44, [INTPSY-D-21-00188R1]. (doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2022.01.007).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with reduced resting state connectivity in the core subsystem of the default mode network (DMN; medial prefrontal cortex – posterior cingulate cortex). However, the neuropsychological consequences of this hypoconnectivity remain to be determined. Building on recent theoretical models of DMN function, we tested the association between DMN hypo-connectivity and three neuropsychological processes previously implicated in ADHD: (i) excessive task-unrelated spontaneous thought (i.e., mind-wandering); (ii) sub-optimal decision-making due to exaggerated temporal discounting; and (iii) delay aversion – a heightened emotional response to the imposition or experience of delay. Methods: Twenty male adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD and 18 typically developing adolescents (all aged 11–16 years) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan to assess DMN connectivity. An experimental paradigm was used to assess temporal discounting and self-report questionnaires were used to measure mind wandering and delay aversion. Results: ADHD was significantly associated with DMN hypo-connectivity specifically in the core subsystem, elevated levels of mind-wandering, delay aversion, and temporal discounting. Mediation analysis suggested that DMN hypoconnectivity mediated the link between ADHD and delay aversion. Conclusion: The results provide initial evidence that disturbances in the DMN may impair ability to regulate delay-related negative affect in adolescents with ADHD.

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Accepted/In Press date: 9 January 2022
Published date: March 2022
Additional Information: Funding Information: This work was funded by University of Southampton studentship funding awarded to Dr Broulidakis. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 Elsevier B.V. Copyright: Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
Keywords: ADHD, Default mode network, Delay aversion, Mind-wandering, Temporal discounting, fMRI

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 454316
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/454316
ISSN: 0167-8760
PURE UUID: 2c3d83fa-5bae-4603-9205-959df7a9cd17
ORCID for Dennis Golm: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2950-7935
ORCID for Samuele Cortese: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5877-8075

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Date deposited: 07 Feb 2022 17:40
Last modified: 19 Jan 2023 05:01

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Contributors

Author: John Broulidakis
Author: Dennis Golm ORCID iD
Author: Samuele Cortese ORCID iD
Author: Graeme Fairchild
Author: Edmund Sonuga-Barke

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