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The dark side of corrective feedback: Controlled and automatic influences of retrieval practice

The dark side of corrective feedback: Controlled and automatic influences of retrieval practice
The dark side of corrective feedback: Controlled and automatic influences of retrieval practice
Corrective feedback is often touted as a critical benefit to learning, boosting testing effects when retrieval is poor and reducing negative testing effects. Here, we explore the dark side of corrective feedback. In 3 experiments, we found that corrective feedback on multiple-choice practice questions is later endorsed as the answer to related second-test questions, even though it is no longer correct. We describe this effect as an automatic influence of memory for feedback which participants fail to control. We explored how this influence is affected by the depth of retrieval during practice by successively increasing the retrieval demands of the multiple-choice practice test across the 3 experiments: Experiment 1 used a standard (select a single favorite option) format; Experiment 2 used ranking (rank order the options); and Experiment 3 used elimination testing (provide reasons for rejecting unchosen options). Increasing retrieval depth enhanced controlled influences on a cued-recall second test, evidenced by better accuracy on related versus new questions. However, it did not reduce the automatic influence on accuracy when the second test was multiple choice, partly because repeating the options between practice and test likely led to false recognition of related questions. Together, the results suggest that multiple-choice practice tests produce both automatic and controlled memory influences on related second-test questions, with retrieval depth at practice being an important determinant of the controlled influence. However, whether that controlled influence will override the automatic influence of memory for the corrective feedback also depends on the second test format.
Multiple-choice questions, controlled and automatic memory influences, cued recall, familiarity, recollection, testing effect
1939-1285
752-768
Alamri, Aeshah
a8757c26-2bb4-44fb-9207-977653524719
Higham, Philip
4093b28f-7d58-4d18-89d4-021792e418e7
Alamri, Aeshah
a8757c26-2bb4-44fb-9207-977653524719
Higham, Philip
4093b28f-7d58-4d18-89d4-021792e418e7

Alamri, Aeshah and Higham, Philip (2022) The dark side of corrective feedback: Controlled and automatic influences of retrieval practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 48 (5), 752-768. (doi:10.1037/xlm0001138).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Corrective feedback is often touted as a critical benefit to learning, boosting testing effects when retrieval is poor and reducing negative testing effects. Here, we explore the dark side of corrective feedback. In 3 experiments, we found that corrective feedback on multiple-choice practice questions is later endorsed as the answer to related second-test questions, even though it is no longer correct. We describe this effect as an automatic influence of memory for feedback which participants fail to control. We explored how this influence is affected by the depth of retrieval during practice by successively increasing the retrieval demands of the multiple-choice practice test across the 3 experiments: Experiment 1 used a standard (select a single favorite option) format; Experiment 2 used ranking (rank order the options); and Experiment 3 used elimination testing (provide reasons for rejecting unchosen options). Increasing retrieval depth enhanced controlled influences on a cued-recall second test, evidenced by better accuracy on related versus new questions. However, it did not reduce the automatic influence on accuracy when the second test was multiple choice, partly because repeating the options between practice and test likely led to false recognition of related questions. Together, the results suggest that multiple-choice practice tests produce both automatic and controlled memory influences on related second-test questions, with retrieval depth at practice being an important determinant of the controlled influence. However, whether that controlled influence will override the automatic influence of memory for the corrective feedback also depends on the second test format.

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The Dark Side of Corrective Feedback Controlled and Automatic Influences of Retrieval Practice - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 21 February 2022
Published date: 7 April 2022
Additional Information: Funding Information: This article was a part of Aeshah Alamri's PhD research for which a scholarship was provided by King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Publisher Copyright: © 2022. American Psychological Association
Keywords: Multiple-choice questions, controlled and automatic memory influences, cued recall, familiarity, recollection, testing effect

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 455679
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/455679
ISSN: 1939-1285
PURE UUID: 5b80e628-94f8-4f2d-9bab-fa0d82b32e3b
ORCID for Philip Higham: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6087-7224

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Date deposited: 30 Mar 2022 16:47
Last modified: 14 Jul 2022 01:38

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Contributors

Author: Aeshah Alamri
Author: Philip Higham ORCID iD

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