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A high-precision extensometer system for ground displacement measurement using fiber Bragg grating

A high-precision extensometer system for ground displacement measurement using fiber Bragg grating
A high-precision extensometer system for ground displacement measurement using fiber Bragg grating
The design and performance of an innovative high-precision extensometer system, fabricated inexpensively using 3D printing technology, are discussed in this paper. In the development of the extensometer, an embedded Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensor was 3D printed using a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) filament, which was used as the primary sensing element of the extensometer system, taking advantage of its excellent flexibility and high sensitivity to variations in localized strain. In the performance assessment carried out, the results obtained during the experimental test and validation have demonstrated that it could be used very effectively to measure strain variations, with an average wavelength responsivity of 0.0158 nm/cm (for displacement) and very high linearity (up to 99%). Furthermore, the protection integrated into the sensor systems design makes it well-suited for in-the-field applications, such as monitoring ground displacements which can lead to dangerous slippages of sloped earthworks. In addition, a field testing of the extensometer under simulated conditions has shown that a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based approach could be applied effectively to the measurement of strain, offering a wavelength responsivity of 0.0012 nm/ με (for strain-sensitive FBGs) under both dry and wet soil conditions. Moreover, taking advantage of the high (~99%) linearity, the extensometer is a reliable instrument for use in different underground conditions, creating an easy-to-use ground movement monitoring system which then enables an excellent representation of the displacement profile of the earth to be made.
3D-printing, Extensometer, Fiber gratings, Monitoring, Sensors, Strain, Strain measurement, Temperature measurement, Temperature sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based technology, ground movements, strain measurements
1530-437X
8509 - 8521
Brambilla, Gilberto
815d9712-62c7-47d1-8860-9451a363a6c8
Alias, M. A.
dc31f26c-9366-4970-925c-aac148c53cd9
Ismail, M.F.
21f9b865-629b-4667-87bb-bd1989514a0a
Sa'ad, M.S.M.
08686d35-c75f-41ec-ac1d-98d958a3f37e
Zaini, M.K.A.
33154552-ae09-4683-af57-a1acd5986087
Lim, K. S.
506b68d5-3223-45e7-901d-384f32484d05
Grattan, K.T.V.
b76a010f-fcf9-4cac-bf15-3ec61b0dc182
Rahman, B.M.A.
ffc53588-c9bb-4464-a7cc-df349c92d0cf
Reduan, S.A.
05d0c1af-a599-4d57-898d-e1780b913d54
Ahmad, H.
a115362d-21a5-48c4-9cd5-85cc45630ced
Brambilla, Gilberto
815d9712-62c7-47d1-8860-9451a363a6c8
Alias, M. A.
dc31f26c-9366-4970-925c-aac148c53cd9
Ismail, M.F.
21f9b865-629b-4667-87bb-bd1989514a0a
Sa'ad, M.S.M.
08686d35-c75f-41ec-ac1d-98d958a3f37e
Zaini, M.K.A.
33154552-ae09-4683-af57-a1acd5986087
Lim, K. S.
506b68d5-3223-45e7-901d-384f32484d05
Grattan, K.T.V.
b76a010f-fcf9-4cac-bf15-3ec61b0dc182
Rahman, B.M.A.
ffc53588-c9bb-4464-a7cc-df349c92d0cf
Reduan, S.A.
05d0c1af-a599-4d57-898d-e1780b913d54
Ahmad, H.
a115362d-21a5-48c4-9cd5-85cc45630ced

Brambilla, Gilberto, Alias, M. A., Ismail, M.F., Sa'ad, M.S.M., Zaini, M.K.A., Lim, K. S., Grattan, K.T.V., Rahman, B.M.A., Reduan, S.A. and Ahmad, H. (2022) A high-precision extensometer system for ground displacement measurement using fiber Bragg grating. IEEE Sensors Journal, 22 (9), 8509 - 8521. (doi:10.1109/JSEN.2022.3159850).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The design and performance of an innovative high-precision extensometer system, fabricated inexpensively using 3D printing technology, are discussed in this paper. In the development of the extensometer, an embedded Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensor was 3D printed using a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) filament, which was used as the primary sensing element of the extensometer system, taking advantage of its excellent flexibility and high sensitivity to variations in localized strain. In the performance assessment carried out, the results obtained during the experimental test and validation have demonstrated that it could be used very effectively to measure strain variations, with an average wavelength responsivity of 0.0158 nm/cm (for displacement) and very high linearity (up to 99%). Furthermore, the protection integrated into the sensor systems design makes it well-suited for in-the-field applications, such as monitoring ground displacements which can lead to dangerous slippages of sloped earthworks. In addition, a field testing of the extensometer under simulated conditions has shown that a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based approach could be applied effectively to the measurement of strain, offering a wavelength responsivity of 0.0012 nm/ με (for strain-sensitive FBGs) under both dry and wet soil conditions. Moreover, taking advantage of the high (~99%) linearity, the extensometer is a reliable instrument for use in different underground conditions, creating an easy-to-use ground movement monitoring system which then enables an excellent representation of the displacement profile of the earth to be made.

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2103 final - Manuscript Extensometer - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 6 March 2022
e-pub ahead of print date: 16 March 2022
Published date: 1 May 2022
Additional Information: Publisher Copyright: IEEE
Keywords: 3D-printing, Extensometer, Fiber gratings, Monitoring, Sensors, Strain, Strain measurement, Temperature measurement, Temperature sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based technology, ground movements, strain measurements

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 456837
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/456837
ISSN: 1530-437X
PURE UUID: bac2d9eb-ea2f-409c-83c1-c26323d0fbfc
ORCID for Gilberto Brambilla: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5730-0499

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 May 2022 16:48
Last modified: 28 Oct 2022 01:43

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Contributors

Author: M. A. Alias
Author: M.F. Ismail
Author: M.S.M. Sa'ad
Author: M.K.A. Zaini
Author: K. S. Lim
Author: K.T.V. Grattan
Author: B.M.A. Rahman
Author: S.A. Reduan
Author: H. Ahmad

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