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Pros and Cons of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Health

Pros and Cons of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Health
Pros and Cons of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Health

The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found in seafood, supplements, and concentrated pharmaceutical preparations. Prospective cohort studies demonstrate an association between higher intakes of EPA+DHA or higher levels of EPA and DHA in the body and lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, and of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. The cardioprotective effect of EPA and DHA is due to the beneficial modulation of a number of risk factors for CVD. Some large trials support the use of EPA+DHA (or EPA alone) in high-risk patients, although the evidence is inconsistent. This review presents key studies of EPA and DHA in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD, briefly describes potential mechanisms of action, and discusses recently published RCTs and meta-analyses. Potential adverse aspects of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in relation to CVD are discussed.

docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, fish oil, heart disease, omega-3 fatty acid, risk factor
383-406
Djuricic, Ivana
026d50b0-0c67-4f43-96fc-26e68dea0198
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Djuricic, Ivana
026d50b0-0c67-4f43-96fc-26e68dea0198
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Djuricic, Ivana and Calder, Philip (2023) Pros and Cons of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Health. Annual Review of Pharmacology & Toxicology, 63, 383-406. (doi:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-051921-090208).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found in seafood, supplements, and concentrated pharmaceutical preparations. Prospective cohort studies demonstrate an association between higher intakes of EPA+DHA or higher levels of EPA and DHA in the body and lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, and of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. The cardioprotective effect of EPA and DHA is due to the beneficial modulation of a number of risk factors for CVD. Some large trials support the use of EPA+DHA (or EPA alone) in high-risk patients, although the evidence is inconsistent. This review presents key studies of EPA and DHA in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD, briefly describes potential mechanisms of action, and discusses recently published RCTs and meta-analyses. Potential adverse aspects of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in relation to CVD are discussed.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 18 April 2022
Published date: 20 January 2023
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, fish oil, heart disease, omega-3 fatty acid, risk factor

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 457048
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/457048
PURE UUID: 781621a8-2597-4d6a-88ae-865587e00d3c
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 20 May 2022 16:47
Last modified: 08 Feb 2023 18:09

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Contributors

Author: Ivana Djuricic
Author: Philip Calder ORCID iD

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