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An experimental study of ice formation in pipes

An experimental study of ice formation in pipes
An experimental study of ice formation in pipes

This thesis presents the results of an experimental study of cryogenic pipe freezing. The results of previous studies are reviewed which provide an introduction and background to the work described here.

Tests were carried out on water filled pipes ranging in diameter from 100 mm to 250 mm, with initial temperatures from 7°C to 51°C. Both vertical and horizontal orientations were tested with and without pressure driven flows and in both upward and downward directions.

The results showed that the time to freeze increases with pipe diameter, water temperature and flow rate. It was established that, for non-flow freezes, there is a limiting temperature above which the ice plug will not close. A simple inverse relationship, between the limiting temperature and pipe diameter, was shown to hold over the range investigated.

Average values of heat transfer coefficient were deduced from the extension of the time to freeze with increasing water temperature. Values up to about 300 W/m2K were determined, which are consistent with other research.

A similar approach was used to analyse the flow freezes, which produced values of average heat transfer coefficient of the same order as those obtained under natural convection conditions. Lower average values were obtained at larger pipe diameters; it was suggested that this reflected the reduced tolerance to convective heat transfer from the water at the ice interface at greater ice thicknesses

The effects of aiding and opposing flows on ice plug growth in vertical pipes was investigated and found to depend on the flow regime, the available pressure head and the reduction in flow area due to the ice. Plug diameter profiles were measured at various stages and showed a strong dependence on flow rate, direction and temperature.

Three methods of plug detection and monitoring were investigated and a method based on the measurement of pipe surface heat flux was developed. This was tested in the laboratory as well as in the field and shown to be effective and reliable.

University of Southampton
Bowen, Richard James
Bowen, Richard James

Bowen, Richard James (2000) An experimental study of ice formation in pipes. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

This thesis presents the results of an experimental study of cryogenic pipe freezing. The results of previous studies are reviewed which provide an introduction and background to the work described here.

Tests were carried out on water filled pipes ranging in diameter from 100 mm to 250 mm, with initial temperatures from 7°C to 51°C. Both vertical and horizontal orientations were tested with and without pressure driven flows and in both upward and downward directions.

The results showed that the time to freeze increases with pipe diameter, water temperature and flow rate. It was established that, for non-flow freezes, there is a limiting temperature above which the ice plug will not close. A simple inverse relationship, between the limiting temperature and pipe diameter, was shown to hold over the range investigated.

Average values of heat transfer coefficient were deduced from the extension of the time to freeze with increasing water temperature. Values up to about 300 W/m2K were determined, which are consistent with other research.

A similar approach was used to analyse the flow freezes, which produced values of average heat transfer coefficient of the same order as those obtained under natural convection conditions. Lower average values were obtained at larger pipe diameters; it was suggested that this reflected the reduced tolerance to convective heat transfer from the water at the ice interface at greater ice thicknesses

The effects of aiding and opposing flows on ice plug growth in vertical pipes was investigated and found to depend on the flow regime, the available pressure head and the reduction in flow area due to the ice. Plug diameter profiles were measured at various stages and showed a strong dependence on flow rate, direction and temperature.

Three methods of plug detection and monitoring were investigated and a method based on the measurement of pipe surface heat flux was developed. This was tested in the laboratory as well as in the field and shown to be effective and reliable.

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Published date: 2000

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 466973
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/466973
PURE UUID: 2868c67f-c374-4af1-b6c0-495f9cc052d2

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Date deposited: 05 Jul 2022 08:05
Last modified: 05 Jul 2022 08:05

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Author: Richard James Bowen

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