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The biofilm matrix: multitasking in a shared space

The biofilm matrix: multitasking in a shared space
The biofilm matrix: multitasking in a shared space
The biofilm matrix serves as a shared space for its cellular inhabitants, comprising a wide variety of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), like polysaccharides, proteins, amyloids, lipids and extracellular DNA (eDNA), as well as membrane vesicles and humic-like, bacterially derived refractory substances. The EPS are dynamic in space and time and its components interact in complex ways, fulfilling various functions: to stabilize the matrix, acquire nutrients, retain and protect eDNA or exoenzymes, or offer sorption sites for ions and hydrophobic substances. The retention of exoenzymes effectively renders the biofilm matrix an external digestion system influencing the global turnover of biopolymers. Physicochemical and biological interactions and environmental conditions enable biofilm systems to morph into films, micro- and macro-colonies, ridges, ripples, columns, pellicles, bubbles, mushrooms and suspended aggregates – in response to the very diverse conditions confronting a particular biofilm community. This impedes efforts to control them and increases microbial tolerance to, for example, antibiotics, disinfectants and other antimicrobials. Assembly and dynamics of this intricate, active and responsive structure is mostly coordinated by secondary messengers such as cyclic-di-GMP, signaling molecules, or small RNAs, depending on the species involved. Fully deciphering how bacteria provide structure to the matrix, and thus facilitate and benefit from extracellular reactions, remains the challenge for future biofilm research.
The Biofilm Matrix, Multitasking in a Shared Space
1740-1526
Flemming, Hans-Curt
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van Hullebusch, Eric
cd00a9b8-9308-4c90-984b-8081a5a1aef9
Neu, Thomas R.
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Nielsen, Per
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Seviour, Thomas
fb998d47-93a1-4f97-86f9-86b8c95e0790
Stoodley, Paul
08614665-92a9-4466-806e-20c6daeb483f
Wingender, Jost
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Wuertz, Stefan
f98a268f-fc3b-4454-9be3-d5a4dd5944ae
Flemming, Hans-Curt
f1726261-3917-45e9-95fd-7f1945b38c66
van Hullebusch, Eric
cd00a9b8-9308-4c90-984b-8081a5a1aef9
Neu, Thomas R.
246b21b7-f036-470b-a842-791f3893226e
Nielsen, Per
98d1f771-ee23-4d7a-ba43-4f1510dbdba5
Seviour, Thomas
fb998d47-93a1-4f97-86f9-86b8c95e0790
Stoodley, Paul
08614665-92a9-4466-806e-20c6daeb483f
Wingender, Jost
4838170a-7100-4f67-b80e-d44159abe98e
Wuertz, Stefan
f98a268f-fc3b-4454-9be3-d5a4dd5944ae

Flemming, Hans-Curt, van Hullebusch, Eric, Neu, Thomas R., Nielsen, Per, Seviour, Thomas, Stoodley, Paul, Wingender, Jost and Wuertz, Stefan (2022) The biofilm matrix: multitasking in a shared space. Nature Reviews Microbiology. (doi:10.1038/s41579-022-00791-0).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The biofilm matrix serves as a shared space for its cellular inhabitants, comprising a wide variety of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), like polysaccharides, proteins, amyloids, lipids and extracellular DNA (eDNA), as well as membrane vesicles and humic-like, bacterially derived refractory substances. The EPS are dynamic in space and time and its components interact in complex ways, fulfilling various functions: to stabilize the matrix, acquire nutrients, retain and protect eDNA or exoenzymes, or offer sorption sites for ions and hydrophobic substances. The retention of exoenzymes effectively renders the biofilm matrix an external digestion system influencing the global turnover of biopolymers. Physicochemical and biological interactions and environmental conditions enable biofilm systems to morph into films, micro- and macro-colonies, ridges, ripples, columns, pellicles, bubbles, mushrooms and suspended aggregates – in response to the very diverse conditions confronting a particular biofilm community. This impedes efforts to control them and increases microbial tolerance to, for example, antibiotics, disinfectants and other antimicrobials. Assembly and dynamics of this intricate, active and responsive structure is mostly coordinated by secondary messengers such as cyclic-di-GMP, signaling molecules, or small RNAs, depending on the species involved. Fully deciphering how bacteria provide structure to the matrix, and thus facilitate and benefit from extracellular reactions, remains the challenge for future biofilm research.

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Accepted/In Press date: 4 August 2022
Published date: 20 September 2022
Keywords: The Biofilm Matrix, Multitasking in a Shared Space

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 470881
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/470881
ISSN: 1740-1526
PURE UUID: afccc7de-067d-4343-a352-2c52b5935828
ORCID for Paul Stoodley: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6069-273X

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Date deposited: 20 Oct 2022 16:45
Last modified: 04 Feb 2023 05:01

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Contributors

Author: Hans-Curt Flemming
Author: Eric van Hullebusch
Author: Thomas R. Neu
Author: Per Nielsen
Author: Thomas Seviour
Author: Paul Stoodley ORCID iD
Author: Jost Wingender
Author: Stefan Wuertz

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