Gambling, W.A. and Matsumura, H.
Simple characterisation factor for practical single-mode fibres
Electronics Letters, 13, (23), . (doi:10.1049/el:19770489).
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The spot size of the HE11 mode in a practical singlemode fibre mainly depends on the numerical aperture and not on the normalised frequency. An alternative definition of spot size in terms of a matching Gaussian beam is much simpler to use.
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