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Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in younger children

Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in younger children
Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in younger children
SUMMARY: A healthy diet positively influences childhood bone health, but how the food environment relates to bone development is unknown. Greater neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets was associated with lower bone mass among infants, while greater access to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher bone mass at 4 years.

INTRODUCTION: Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long-term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children.

METHODS: One thousand one hundred and seven children participating in the Southampton Women's Survey, UK, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and 4 and/or 6 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant's neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast-food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets.

RESULTS: Neighbourhood exposure to fast-food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β = -0.23 (z-score): 95% CI -0.38, -0.08) and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β = -0.17 (z-score): 95% CI -0.32, -0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at 4 and 6 years (β = 0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β = 0.13(z-score): 95% CI -0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at 4 years, but not at 6 years.

CONCLUSIONS: The neighbourhood food environment that pregnant mothers and young children are exposed may affect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in future studies, action to reduce access to fast-food outlets could have benefits for childhood development and long-term bone health.
developmental modelling, DXA, epidemiology, general population studies, nutrition
0937-941X
1011-1019
Vogel, C.
768f1dcd-2697-4aae-95cc-ee2f6d63dff5
Parsons, C.
43244c4b-0e18-4657-816d-9f5710cc7b07
Godfrey, K.
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Robinson, S.
ba591c98-4380-456a-be8a-c452f992b69b
Harvey, N.C.
ce487fb4-d360-4aac-9d17-9466d6cba145
Inskip, H.
5fb4470a-9379-49b2-a533-9da8e61058b7
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Baird, J.
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824
Vogel, C.
768f1dcd-2697-4aae-95cc-ee2f6d63dff5
Parsons, C.
43244c4b-0e18-4657-816d-9f5710cc7b07
Godfrey, K.
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Robinson, S.
ba591c98-4380-456a-be8a-c452f992b69b
Harvey, N.C.
ce487fb4-d360-4aac-9d17-9466d6cba145
Inskip, H.
5fb4470a-9379-49b2-a533-9da8e61058b7
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Baird, J.
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824

Vogel, C., Parsons, C., Godfrey, K., Robinson, S., Harvey, N.C., Inskip, H., Cooper, C. and Baird, J. (2016) Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in younger children. Osteoporosis International, 27 (3), 1011-1019. (doi:10.1007/s00198-015-3340-6). (PMID:26458387)

Record type: Article

Abstract

SUMMARY: A healthy diet positively influences childhood bone health, but how the food environment relates to bone development is unknown. Greater neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets was associated with lower bone mass among infants, while greater access to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher bone mass at 4 years.

INTRODUCTION: Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long-term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children.

METHODS: One thousand one hundred and seven children participating in the Southampton Women's Survey, UK, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and 4 and/or 6 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant's neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast-food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets.

RESULTS: Neighbourhood exposure to fast-food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β = -0.23 (z-score): 95% CI -0.38, -0.08) and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β = -0.17 (z-score): 95% CI -0.32, -0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at 4 and 6 years (β = 0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β = 0.13(z-score): 95% CI -0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at 4 years, but not at 6 years.

CONCLUSIONS: The neighbourhood food environment that pregnant mothers and young children are exposed may affect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in future studies, action to reduce access to fast-food outlets could have benefits for childhood development and long-term bone health.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 24 September 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 12 October 2015
Published date: March 2016
Keywords: developmental modelling, DXA, epidemiology, general population studies, nutrition
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 384109
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/384109
ISSN: 0937-941X
PURE UUID: 45de990a-f0ed-41c1-baaa-f69b4163affe
ORCID for C. Vogel: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3897-3786
ORCID for K. Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618
ORCID for S. Robinson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1766-7269
ORCID for N.C. Harvey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8194-2512
ORCID for H. Inskip: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8897-1749
ORCID for C. Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709
ORCID for J. Baird: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4039-4361

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 14 Dec 2015 16:06
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 17:14

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Contributors

Author: C. Vogel ORCID iD
Author: C. Parsons
Author: K. Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: S. Robinson ORCID iD
Author: N.C. Harvey ORCID iD
Author: H. Inskip ORCID iD
Author: C. Cooper ORCID iD
Author: J. Baird ORCID iD

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