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Peripheral inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in Generalised Anxiety Disorder: case-controlled study

Peripheral inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in Generalised Anxiety Disorder: case-controlled study
Peripheral inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in Generalised Anxiety Disorder: case-controlled study
Introduction: Previous investigations have demonstrated that major depression is associated with particular patterns of cytokine signalling. The primary aim of this study was to examine peripheral pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).

Methods: A case-controlled cross-sectional study design was employed: 54 patients with GAD and 64 healthy controls were recruited. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Two pro-inflammatory and two anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured using multiplex technology.

Results: Case-control logistic regression analyses revealed significant differences in serum levels of IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ between GAD and control groups after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption: these group differences were independent of the presence or degree of depression. Comparison of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios indicated that there were significantly higher ratios of TNF-α /IL10, TNF-α /IL4, IFN-γ /IL10, and IFN-γ /IL4 in the GAD group compared to the control group.

Conclusions: This study is the first to investigate both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their balance in patients with GAD in comparison to healthy controls. The findings indicate a relatively increased pro-inflammatory response and decreased anti-inflammatory response and provide the first demonstration of an altered cytokine balance in GAD. Serum cytokine levels in GAD were independent of the presence of depression.
0889-1591
212-218
Hou, Ruihua
470bdcbc-93a9-4dad-aac5-26d455c34376
Garner, Matthew
3221c5b3-b951-4fec-b456-ec449e4ce072
Osmond, Clive
2677bf85-494f-4a78-adf8-580e1b8acb81
Teeling, Jessica
fcde1c8e-e5f8-4747-9f3a-6bdb5cd87d0a
Lau, Laurie
2af8045d-6162-4939-aba7-28dd2f60f6a8
Baldwin, David S.
1beaa192-0ef1-4914-897a-3a49fc2ed15e
Hou, Ruihua
470bdcbc-93a9-4dad-aac5-26d455c34376
Garner, Matthew
3221c5b3-b951-4fec-b456-ec449e4ce072
Osmond, Clive
2677bf85-494f-4a78-adf8-580e1b8acb81
Teeling, Jessica
fcde1c8e-e5f8-4747-9f3a-6bdb5cd87d0a
Lau, Laurie
2af8045d-6162-4939-aba7-28dd2f60f6a8
Baldwin, David S.
1beaa192-0ef1-4914-897a-3a49fc2ed15e

Hou, Ruihua, Garner, Matthew, Osmond, Clive, Teeling, Jessica, Lau, Laurie and Baldwin, David S. (2017) Peripheral inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in Generalised Anxiety Disorder: case-controlled study. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 62, 212-218. (doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2017.01.021). (PMID:28161475)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Introduction: Previous investigations have demonstrated that major depression is associated with particular patterns of cytokine signalling. The primary aim of this study was to examine peripheral pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).

Methods: A case-controlled cross-sectional study design was employed: 54 patients with GAD and 64 healthy controls were recruited. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Two pro-inflammatory and two anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured using multiplex technology.

Results: Case-control logistic regression analyses revealed significant differences in serum levels of IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ between GAD and control groups after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption: these group differences were independent of the presence or degree of depression. Comparison of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios indicated that there were significantly higher ratios of TNF-α /IL10, TNF-α /IL4, IFN-γ /IL10, and IFN-γ /IL4 in the GAD group compared to the control group.

Conclusions: This study is the first to investigate both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their balance in patients with GAD in comparison to healthy controls. The findings indicate a relatively increased pro-inflammatory response and decreased anti-inflammatory response and provide the first demonstration of an altered cytokine balance in GAD. Serum cytokine levels in GAD were independent of the presence of depression.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 30 January 2017
e-pub ahead of print date: 1 February 2017
Published date: May 2017
Organisations: Medical Research Council, Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Biological Sciences, Clinical & Experimental Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 405600
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/405600
ISSN: 0889-1591
PURE UUID: 3fcc054b-1ed1-499a-84c8-cabf63ebbfef
ORCID for Clive Osmond: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9054-4655
ORCID for Jessica Teeling: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4004-7391

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Date deposited: 08 Feb 2017 14:18
Last modified: 03 Dec 2019 06:19

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Contributors

Author: Ruihua Hou
Author: Matthew Garner
Author: Clive Osmond ORCID iD
Author: Jessica Teeling ORCID iD
Author: Laurie Lau

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