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Evaluation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for 5-year-old children in an Asian population.

Evaluation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for 5-year-old children in an Asian population.
Evaluation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for 5-year-old children in an Asian population.
Background
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary intakes due to their ability to assess intake over extended periods, their low respondent burden, and their cost-effectiveness. A quantitative FFQ that includes locally appropriate food items for 5-year-old children in a multiethnic Asian population was developed, but its validity has not previously been evaluated.

Objective
To evaluate the relative validity of a newly developed FFQ as a dietary assessment tool for 5-year-old children in a multiethnic Asian population.

Design
The 112 –food item FFQ was administered by trained interviewers to caregivers of children. Frequency of food items consumed in the previous month and portion size information were collected. The FFQs were evaluated against 3-day nonweighed diet records (DRs) completed by caregivers.

Participants/setting
The dietary data of 361 children aged 5 years from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were collected in 2015-2016.

Main outcome measures
Nutrients of interest included energy, macronutrients, fiber, cholesterol, vitamin A, beta carotene, calcium, and iron, calculated from the FFQs and DRs.

Statistical analyses performed
Nutrient intakes according to FFQs in relation to DRs were assessed using Pearson’s correlation, Lin’s concordance, Bland-Altman plots, quintile joint classification, and Cohen’s κ statistics.

Results
The highest energy-adjusted correlation (Pearson’s r=0.71) and concordance (Lin’s concordance=0.69) were observed for calcium. Fiber, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), cholesterol, and iron also showed correlation coefficients and concordance of at least 0.40. Bland-Altman plots suggested no substantial bias across ranges of intakes for the nutrients with correlations and concordance of 0.40 or above. Quintiles joint classification showed substantial agreement for calcium (κ=0.66), and moderate agreement for iron, fiber, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and beta carotene (κ=0.59, 0.54, 0.49, 0.44, 0.43, respectively).

Conclusions
The newly developed FFQ is in reasonable agreement with DR for estimating intakes of calcium, fiber, saturated fat, PUFA, cholesterol, and iron. In addition, the FFQ is able to classify children according to quintiles of nutrient intakes, with moderate to substantial quintile agreements between FFQ and DR for calcium, iron, fiber, saturated fat, PUFA, and beta carotene. To assess the remaining nutrients, DR method is recommended instead of the FFQ.
2212-2672
1-8
Sugianto, Ray
afe12fdc-259b-4bd7-a228-a0728de943a0
Chan, Mei Jun
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Wong, Shiu Fung
67b73428-3de8-41e5-a269-b603e45a902f
Shek, Lynette P.
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Tan, K.H.
5088c221-ae35-4063-a5b0-84565963688b
Chong, Y-S
436a467c-1372-4c9c-857c-7a913ba5fcb8
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Tai, B C
d535f0c2-4847-4316-9310-0026e492b2bf
Chong, Mary Foong-Fong
1e188259-b1ab-4448-9e65-5b6a0fd99502
Sugianto, Ray
afe12fdc-259b-4bd7-a228-a0728de943a0
Chan, Mei Jun
b3433baf-b629-49a7-878a-a34091f2fe5b
Wong, Shiu Fung
67b73428-3de8-41e5-a269-b603e45a902f
Shek, Lynette P.
9a77403c-0e0c-4536-a5ad-628ce94b279a
Tan, K.H.
5088c221-ae35-4063-a5b0-84565963688b
Chong, Y-S
436a467c-1372-4c9c-857c-7a913ba5fcb8
Godfrey, Keith
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Tai, B C
d535f0c2-4847-4316-9310-0026e492b2bf
Chong, Mary Foong-Fong
1e188259-b1ab-4448-9e65-5b6a0fd99502

Sugianto, Ray, Chan, Mei Jun, Wong, Shiu Fung, Shek, Lynette P., Tan, K.H., Chong, Y-S, Godfrey, Keith, Tai, B C and Chong, Mary Foong-Fong (2019) Evaluation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for 5-year-old children in an Asian population. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 1-8. (doi:10.1016/j.jand.2019.09.021).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary intakes due to their ability to assess intake over extended periods, their low respondent burden, and their cost-effectiveness. A quantitative FFQ that includes locally appropriate food items for 5-year-old children in a multiethnic Asian population was developed, but its validity has not previously been evaluated.

Objective
To evaluate the relative validity of a newly developed FFQ as a dietary assessment tool for 5-year-old children in a multiethnic Asian population.

Design
The 112 –food item FFQ was administered by trained interviewers to caregivers of children. Frequency of food items consumed in the previous month and portion size information were collected. The FFQs were evaluated against 3-day nonweighed diet records (DRs) completed by caregivers.

Participants/setting
The dietary data of 361 children aged 5 years from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were collected in 2015-2016.

Main outcome measures
Nutrients of interest included energy, macronutrients, fiber, cholesterol, vitamin A, beta carotene, calcium, and iron, calculated from the FFQs and DRs.

Statistical analyses performed
Nutrient intakes according to FFQs in relation to DRs were assessed using Pearson’s correlation, Lin’s concordance, Bland-Altman plots, quintile joint classification, and Cohen’s κ statistics.

Results
The highest energy-adjusted correlation (Pearson’s r=0.71) and concordance (Lin’s concordance=0.69) were observed for calcium. Fiber, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), cholesterol, and iron also showed correlation coefficients and concordance of at least 0.40. Bland-Altman plots suggested no substantial bias across ranges of intakes for the nutrients with correlations and concordance of 0.40 or above. Quintiles joint classification showed substantial agreement for calcium (κ=0.66), and moderate agreement for iron, fiber, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and beta carotene (κ=0.59, 0.54, 0.49, 0.44, 0.43, respectively).

Conclusions
The newly developed FFQ is in reasonable agreement with DR for estimating intakes of calcium, fiber, saturated fat, PUFA, cholesterol, and iron. In addition, the FFQ is able to classify children according to quintiles of nutrient intakes, with moderate to substantial quintile agreements between FFQ and DR for calcium, iron, fiber, saturated fat, PUFA, and beta carotene. To assess the remaining nutrients, DR method is recommended instead of the FFQ.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 26 September 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 19 December 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 437190
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/437190
ISSN: 2212-2672
PURE UUID: 229117fb-9517-4873-a1ec-550762b68649
ORCID for Keith Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 21 Jan 2020 17:35
Last modified: 10 Jan 2022 02:35

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Contributors

Author: Ray Sugianto
Author: Mei Jun Chan
Author: Shiu Fung Wong
Author: Lynette P. Shek
Author: K.H. Tan
Author: Y-S Chong
Author: Keith Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: B C Tai
Author: Mary Foong-Fong Chong

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